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  1. Choreography and Corporeality | SpringerLink
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Y es maravilloso verlo. Primeros filmes que pueden prometer el mundo. From the side of immediate reality Pierre Villemin, Francia, This was a year more of discoveries than following circuits. The works by Frank show the quotidian world with an intimate eye, extremely focused, resulting in experiences of great clarity, low sentimentalism and a lot of emotion. Below please find a film list for experimental work in some This list is in no particular order. La siesta del tigre Maximiliano Schonfeld, Argentina, Cinema Novo Eryck Rocha, Brasil, 2.

Mala Junta Claudia Huaiquimilla, Chile, 5. Great parody of the previous and later days to the death of Joseph Stalin in A comedy about the fight of an adolescent girl against the pessimism of a working class mother that instead of supporting her in her ambitions asks her to conform -like she has done all her life. The best of Allen in many years: a great play that some times achieve the level of a Greek tragedy.

Madame Bovary in Coney Island. Madam Bovary en en Coney Island. Wright has a lot of merit for betting to his version of Churchill. Varda met JR, an street artists, and together they travel France in an adventure. The adolescent enthusiasm of both is contagious. El entusiasmo adolescente de ambos artistas es contagioso. A good death. Example of what Socrates told should be the main function of philosophy: prepare us for death. Mitre creates an extraordinary atmosphere showing the Andes like a portent.

The plot falls short, but as a first chapter of a tv series, this would be great. Mitre crea una extraordinaria atmosfera sobrenatural mostrando a la cordillera de los Andes como un portento. When her partner dies, suddenly Marina has to deal with the prejudices of a society that denies her the right to mourn the loved one. Cuando su pareja muere repentinamente Marina tiene que lidiar con los prejuicios de una sociedad que le niega el derecho a penar al ser amado.

At the end of each year, the task of listing everything that one has been able to enjoy in festival and cinemas starts.

  • The Enchanted Garden.
  • Just Like Them.

The party Sally Porter, UK, Because pain is one of the ways of learing to live. Western Valeska Grisebach, Alemania, Because talking is easy and that leaves us with little hope. This is my list of favourite films I watched in I saw some of them in Festivals or in retrospectives. They are not listed in a particular order, but my best film of is the first, Twin Peaks: The Return, by David Lynch. Esta es mi lista de filmes favoritos que vi en el , algunos de ellos en festivales o retrospectivas. Darren Aronofsky? This list includes films from last year and this year, premieres, netflix, links and torrents from friends, and short films from filmmaker friends.

Nevertheless, it seems obvious that the reiteration spectator may not immediately realize this. Although from a different perspective than the one sketched out here, I would Furies or Erinyes. Clark in Picasso and Truth. From Cubism to Guernica monstrous figure, united — associated — in Figure cat. Indeed, it Princeton, N. Figure is a conceptual and concise work. In the face of works such as these, however, biographical scholarship — as usual — seems to want to impose its viewpoints, which in some cases are reductionist and are largely misogynistic.

Yet examination of the works connected with Figure reveals something quite different. There are works in which the monstrous figure is a drawing hanging on the wall, a painting on an easel or a sculptural bust on a shelf or table. It is perhaps a signifier associated with the last representation of anguish and fear triggered by the primordial void, and it would therefore be associated with guilt and a sense of loss.

Pablo Picasso, Woman in a Garden, c. The second is a particularly complex work. At the same time, however, even 14 See Carmona , op. Essais critiques 3 Paris, , pp. Lastly, in Woman Seated in a Grey Chair, guardia. In his rhetorical games of image, Picasso extended the signifier of the shadow of the profile to another meaning, but the relationship with the disquietude of desire remains.

Both works were included in the Vollard Suite collection. We might say that even the attribution is rhizomatic, given that the contents of both series were authored not only by the plastic artist but also the publisher. The stylistic space of the Vollard Suite assumes a reconsideration of classicism in a historical moment in which classicism could no longer allow itself to remain in the realm of modernity as a vital force, or in which its meaning was no longer that of a dialogue with the past and with Cubism.

At this point, in the s, reconsideration of what is classic denoted absorption of the modern by institutions and even the negation of what is modern on the part of authorities, all of which said with the awareness that any generalization was illicit and could have innumerable exceptions. Picasso may be one of these exceptions.

Or, rather, perhaps Picasso remained outside this driftage of the evocation or reconsideration of the classical style. Both works allude to something that had been marginal to the Movimiento Moderno, if not against it: reflection on the sense of beauty. Underneath, Nude Woman with Bent Leg again encounters a sense of beauty thanks to the flow of organic forms and mystery, and Seated Nude Woman with her Head Resting on her Hand does this through concrete forms that seem to evoke geometry.

We might say that one is a work that strives to grasp the possibilities of sensual beauty and the other that of intellectual beauty. This is another way in which Picasso wanted to exercise his tendency towards duality, a way that would be expressed again in , at the crossroads between the end of the Spanish Civil War and the threshold of the Second World War.

After Picasso completed the creative process of Guernica, redefining his social and political position, accentuating his independence from waning Surrealism, and somehow stabilizing his personal life, Picasso wanted to sum up a large part of his results in the plastic language, creating a style that would definitively identify him and belong to him. Sam Hou- or the other. This was not merely a game of exchanges and formal sums. The linguistic aspect used ston State University. Accessed Data for the year And vice versa.

Picasso lovers. Gris defined painting as architecture, what we might define as the architecture of self-referential forms, and he decisively tied the essence of SE C T I O N 3 Cubism to the language of Constructive Art, though Cubism maintained clear-cut and recognizable representatives.

In Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler wrote to the German critic Carl Einstein to congratulate him on the fact that he had decided to write a book about Gris. The Violin, dated , is likewise such a work fig. Centenaire de sa naissance, exhibition Al- cat. Corre- Rafael Barradas, spondance, , translated, presented and annotated by Vibrationist Composition, Liliane Meffre Marseille, , pp. Certain abstract forms served the purpose of alluding to sensations of space and depth, and, knowing Gris, they also served the purpose of alluding to spatiotemporal sensations.

Here Gris devel- oped a construction.

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  7. The random nature of the colours of what we identify as icons, like the representa- tion of a violin, is a datum inherent in the abstract character of this work, which we consider figurative. Yet, as we can constantly read in his letters, between and Gris found himself facing a problem that was hard to solve. In works with figures, Gris continued to encounter a problem that had already been the problem of Picasso and Braque in and , but also that of his own painting in the integration between background and figure.

    Picasso had already solved it, as Kahnweiler would say, through the breakdown of the homogeneous form of bodies.


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    In doing so, however, Picasso had to maintain the coordinates of the painting through the construction — which we could term architectural — of open figures. He returned to consider it and resolved it by completely homogenizing the treatment of everything that had been painted and reducing the most vital parts of the painting to geometric forms that were free and not systematic, and that overlapped rhythmically.

    There is a very powerful sensation of being in front of an abstract, constructed and dynamic work, and this prevails even though Gris maintains various levels of iconicity and draws in the spectator through small visual references, just as he did in The Violin. The Coffee Grinder fig. Today, however, we know this was not the case.

    We do not have artistic literature from this period regarding Blanchard, but careful analysis of her oeuvre and the context in which she worked allow us to surmise that her position was different. Bearing all this in mind, today can we possibly imagine what life must have been like for an uncompromising Cubist paintress in France in the middle of a world war? In , a decisive year for the new definition of Cubism, in Woman with Guitar cat.

    There was c. Selecting a drawing book from it might seem senseless, but just the opposite is true. Drawings cat. In the Vibrationist language, Barradas wanted to reconcile his powerful personal and In principle, a painting such as Siurana, the Path cat. Therefore, they viewed early moder- nity, in its various options, as a repertory and as something that could be reconsidered, but without giving eclecticism a negative meaning of any kind.

    Through this perspective, we can probably better understand the position — or positions — and meaning of the oeuvre of Pablo Gargallo, an artist who, like Picasso, had to experience various cultures and artistic milieus in order to develop his capabil- ities. When Gargallo executed Woman Resting cat. In his eyes, these options did not seem to be opponents: to a great extent, his effort was aimed at managing to reconcile them, but without absolute mimicry. Gargallo reflected in the face of Cubism, thinking that faceted geometric carving could not be reconciled with sculpture modelled with a round outline and forms rounded like those of the human body.

    His response was the inven- tion of the empty form, his equivalent of the Cubist meaning of prismatic form. Light and space did not elude sculpture, almost as if they were rejected, but inhabited it, while the work preserved the resonance of the tortuous bond of Modernisme and evoked the volumes of Greek statues. However, when he decided to let himself become involved he did not find a true point of departure until he decided to reconsider Cubism, although this reconsideration was presumably impromptu.

    Peasant Woman Mask cat. This Cubist reinterpretation culminated with certain masks and heads made around and the Harlequin at the Kunsthaus in Zurich, which would be transformed into true Constructivist art in the series entitled The Lovers. As a result, in the relationship between Cubism and New Classicism, to some extent the artist from Granada ventured beyond Picasso him- self. It is significant that, in this extension, it was Cubism that was reborn, becoming a language with even more abstract and diversified forms that accumulated centrifugally on the canvas, transforming the motif and ideogram, as we can see in Still Life cat.

    While his late Cubist still lifes were not the only factor in play, they nevertheless helped place Cubism in the context of the Generation of However, Cubism was assimilated in the context of the Gen- eration of because it was considered a bastion of pure art, but starting from the conditions of being an art in favour of rules and form. Pablo Palazuelo, Autumns, The almost monumental Harlequin cat. Castellanos was about the same age as Jorge Oteiza and Pablo Palazuelo. Oteiza had been involved in Arte Nuevo before the Civil War; Palazuelo was familiar with it but did not embrace it.

    The The artist then ceased to work continuously as a sculptor. A clarifying revi- as a solution to the spatiotemporal relationship on the canvas. The sculptural entity was the free space that the material made perceptible and that, in a certain sense, it rat- ified through its being there rather than its appearing.

    In this way, Oteiza wanted a strictly spatial, objective and impersonal sculpture, purified and silent, and extraneous to the spectacular or surprising significance of traditional sculpture. Though it is a com- plete work, its syntax is simple. It presents areas of rapid circulation that contrast with peaceful and silent areas; it is pregnant and diluted at the same time.

    We could also add that the opening of the box in different locations or points and the unfolding of the constructive layers make the work expand towards the outside and lend it dynamic and expressive qualities, endowing it with a complex interplay of voids and shadows that Jorge Oteiza, Empty Box, However, in his statements and comments on his oeuvre, Palazuelo avoided talking about Cubism. We know how important Gris was for him at the beginning, something Claude Esteban took as a given, since the artist himself revealed this in a well-known epistolary dialogue they maintained and then collected in the form of a book in White Weather cat.

    Among collectors, 14 Oteiza himself was aware of the differential traits of this work and said so to Miguel Pelay Orozco, who set his words museologists and connoisseurs today, Palazuelo is almost a cult figure and one gets the impression down in his authoritative work Oteiza, su vida, su obra, su pen- that describing his work in detail would be akin to betraying it.

    In any case, there is no doubt that in samiento, su palabra Bilbao, These are forms that do not imitate Nature but are Nature, and that are made to flow and be manifested by a rhythmic pulsion. Palazuelo thought that the static character of Con- structivist structures made them prime or school forms, and works like White Weather demonstrate how the mature Palazuelo was actually a figure outside any type of classification of the oeuvres of post-war constructed or objective abstract art.

    In several conversations on Palazuelo17 and Spanish art just after the war, it was commented that Palazuelo and Oteiza had a utopian spirit that immediate followers, the supporters of Concrete Art, lacked. In reality, since the strong notion of avant-garde art developed as a proposal destined to encourage social transformation starting with aesthetic change, there was a dearth of intense projects of this kind in the Spanish experiences of modernity.

    In a certain way, the advent of Equipo 57 was seen as an anodyne to this absence. Naturally, in principle, and although once again the group worked out of Paris and its trajec- tory was almost ephemeral, its appearance implied a change in conceptions. The main one was the change in the conception of paternity, because in the end, the Spanish leaders of international modernity and the creators of Arte Nuevo were never positioned at a point that was not one of continuously redefining the romantic idea of the artist, whereas starting from the personal anomie in its label, Equipo 57 wanted to recover the dimensions and possibilities of the artist as producer.

    Secondly, there was the conception of the work as a medium or vehicle, and not largely as an end. Thirdly, through the new conceptions of author and opus, there would be the desire to redefine the mechanisms of the construction and imposition of Art as an Institution and, in this sense, while Equipo 57 still contained the regenerationist princi- ples of Arte Nuevo, the change — which remained just an announcement — wanted to be qualitative.

    Furthermore, it is aware of the fact that without the points of departure proposed in the work it would not have had the formalization it later attained. Proceso de trabajo, edited by Manuel J. Borja-Villel and Teresa elements, but in the dynamic interrelations they create. All this, in an evolved way, is what can still Grandas Barcelona, , pp. There is no question that Gris was imprisoned in phenomenological references that tion of Abstract Painting held in Bilbao in Text signed Equipo 57 no longer needed. Published in Equipo 57 , op. This was a time in which the founding members of Equipo 57 were influenced manifesto.

    He appears, only to be renounced,19 and renounced necessarily. Denying the father is by Oteiza, but they would soon abandon this.

    Index of /

    Nevertheless, I claiming him, denying the father is alluding to an origin and thus presenting the keys, contradictions think that the clarification in this footnote does not alter the general lines of this text. Around , Picasso was multiple, just as his production had been since at least He would still produce several powerful works in the classical manner and would also manage to exploit what survived of the Cubist language.

    Nevertheless, looking back from the present moment, what we see is that Picasso started to feel that the means permitting the coexistence of Cubism and clas- sicism had been exhausted. In , Picasso started to lay the groundwork for a style based on spontaneity, plastic writing all in one go and the synthesis in the graphic arabesque. Some of the compositions used in Mercure are an example of this possibility. Juan Gris, Book of Music, be given so much space in his production. At the same time, in the painting The Three Dancers On the whole, following the thread of rhetoric on Picasso, the immediate reaction would be to classify Musical Instruments on a Table among the great still lifes the artist completed between and We have already commented on Bust and Palette cat.

    Variations that introduces section 2 of this catalogue. Aside from what is commonly thought and asserted, however, Picasso began this series in , with small works that he continued to produce even after the advent of his large-scale works. As already seen with regard to Bust and Palette, Picasso used this type of work to reflect on the ultimate meaning of the classicist memory of the new art, posit the issue of representation within the modern system and problematize the relationship between Cubism and classicism, which had been experienced ad libitum until then. As already noted, in this group of still lifes Picasso worked on what Alfred H.

    Starting in , however, and at the same time as the work for Mercure, without ever aban- doning the reference to still life Picasso also worked on a series of paintings — not very numerous but poetically significant — in which figurative mention was converted into sign, and the signs were placed on undefined abstract backgrounds. They were flat paintings, articulated into coloured fields, and they anticipated some of the aspects of Abstract Expressionism, due not only to these char- acteristics but also because they permitted the dripping and trickling of diluted paint.

    Subsequently and in later motif, but it is organized around values that are clearly opposite those of the Cubist structure. In broad terms, howev- la jeune peinture. Une nouvelle heure de peintres? Interior de una revista. The 63— The writings of transported by the existential flow. In the central part of his production, he was an artist in favour of rules and form, a lover of constructed and objective art.

    This innovation consisted of establishing relationships among the represented objects through figurative ties and fusions. Gris was always very close to poets and poetry, particularly in the years immediately after the First World War. Gris had been working on this duality since Nevertheless, it is likely that he did, given that during those years Kahnweiler, who for the exhibition: Juan Gris.

    Cubism: painting as a system. As we know, he never let himself get involved in either the language 8 Juan Gris. The article is reproduced in this cata- logue on pages — Pintura One worth highlighting is that at the crossroads marked by the year , reference was made to the new of them was published in Salle XIV. And then, as you can see, I give greater and greater importance to the materials I use in my Escritos y conversciones , op.

    A rich and vigorous material seems necessary to me in order to give the viewer that smack Guggenheim Museum, , edited by Ro- a plastic media. Escritos y conversaciones , op. Por otra parte, ya lo ve usted, concedo una impor- Out of a thousand men of letters, find me a poet! I make no distinction between painting and poetry. Una materia rica y vigorosa me parece necesaria para dar al espectador Sometimes I illustrate my paintings with poetic phrases and vice versa.

    What counts is discovering our soul. Painting da, habla su propio lenguaje. Peinture ou poesie se cus on the moment in which he executed the work we are examining here: Painting cat. Once he ended his In a certain sense, both operations are already poetic per se. These signs were then transferred to or transposed onto the canvas, deposited in a space without references or referents, without time or place and devoid of all plastic intentionality, in which plastic is understood as the vocation of painting to encounter itself and its own scale of values.

    Working at the point of encounter between the conscious and the subconscious means finding oneself at the same point of the revelation. This is an aspect that Freud had already emphasized, that current neurology confirms and that the Surrealists, Breton in particular, embraced. It was a new poetry that was not based on projections of the sentimental ego or on the construction of a verbal rhetoric, but on the per- ception of the primary moment in which that which cannot be said or thought during wakefulness is born. For example, some thus seem to be scenes and others describe figures. Some present a certain dramatic tone, others are relational, and many are comical or humorous.

    All, or most, are entitled Painting, and it is only for the purpose of cataloguing and distinguishing among them that we talk about The Red Spot, the Spanish Flag fig. None are abstract in the aniconic meaning of the term. It is this escape from imme- , op.

    1. Short title list.
    2. Table of contents.
    3. Relay in Motion.
    4. Reflections and bibliographic refer- diate meanings that makes the work even more poetic. It was to explain this upheaval that he decided to write one of the first narrative histories of modern art. However, it was also an unprecedented publishing success, an invaluable source of information, and a point of encounter for artists with the most diverse geo- graphical, cultural and economic backgrounds.

      Indeed, we merely need to think of the results attained at a certain moment in the North American milieu by Clement Greenberg to realize that this was also the case outside Spain as well. They were less than thirty years old in In Paris, and probably no earlier, the two artists 25 Dupin, op. Utray, are in the appendix of Eugenio Carmona, Pintura fruta. Bores had reflected at length on the legacy and variations of the Cubist experience.

      First of all, he was scrupulous about priming the canvas and applied a Still Life White Glass, base colour and texture that would influence the rest of the work. Then he worked ad lib, without Jar and Fruit on a Blue Background , Bores tried not to represent anything first. The recognizable signs on the canvas were friendly presences that emerged randomly as if they had come from some point of the unconscious, but without the dreamlike pretension of Surrealism.

      Like Gris and despite the fact that he had little regard for Gris , Bores went from the abstract to the figurative, but not through the architecture of forms. He did the exact opposite, working through an intuitive balance — tactile, informal and using signs — of surface, colour, texture and gestures in the application of paint. Bores initially worked with a range of ochre, sienna, red and black, offset by white, closely approaching the so-called Spanish palette. Subsequently, however, he went to more intense, light and luminous colours, as we can see in the paradigmatic Still Life on the Wall cat.

      During this period, Bores did not label his work. At first he praised it and commented on it in detail as ing to landscapes. He adhered to the Spanish palette for a longer time and cultivated an indomitable vein that contrasted the lyricism of his works. In some of his seascapes he later achieved an essentialism marked by energetic, fluid and immediate brushwork that was uncommon in contemporary Spanish art and anticipated some of the modes of Abstract Expressionism. Their pioneering contribution would be revisited and valorized. Furthermore, their works would not be limited to the Parisian milieu.

      Togores had been one of the European founders of Magical Realism, but at this point, his work, which was handled by Kahnweil- er at the time, suddenly turned towards spontaneous writing and the potential of the new plastic lyricism. Forms cat. Maillol showed himself to be understanding but dismayed. Today, however, we must admit that this duality in Togores is exciting, but after this phase the artist perhaps never re- covered the power of his finest moments. In retrospect, this transition towards the painting of sign and surface was one of the happiest periods of his production.

      Various explanations have been put forward for the abstract Togores. Looking at this from another standpoint, given that Togores was successful, had friends and a public, and sold his works as a re- alist painter, why would he have changed in the first place? Furthermore, we must not forget that Togores was conservative in mentality and ideas. Yet with so many suggestions, some by Josep Casamartina i Parassols Madrid, , pp. By the same editor see also Josep de Togores , op.

      In fact, an Francisco Bores, Untitled, Perhaps this is why the journal paid special attention to Spanish art, although evidently the selection of the elect implied a gamble and a risk. In addition to the text and drawings, the manuscript also contains reproductions, on postcards, of in conventional texts on modern art. In this other ambit or this other register of his production, the portals of French Gothic cathedrals, particularly those of Chartres and Notre-Dame in Paris.

      It is not a formally elab- the problem is the same yet different at the same time. Between and , as well as references, and is filled with annotations and cor- rections. This text was first published in an English entire poetics: drawing in space. Sculpture in Iron New York, , pp. The article is reproduced in this catalogue on pp. Like the night, where in the uneasiness the stars show us so many points in the sky, the immobile spire shows us just as many infinite points. And these points in the infinite have been references for Arte Nuevo: drawing in space. The real question to ask cannot be limited to the execution of a harmonious work, beautiful as a whole, well balanced… Absolutely not!

      The creation process goes through the union of matter and space, of real forms and elaborated forms, suggested by defined points and by voids that, following the natural law of love, mingle and become inseparable from each other, like body and spirit. Much like the tubular females of Leger, whom Gonzalez is said to have particularly admired, the Cubist Couple is transformed by the rods and cubes of which it is assembled in such a way that what was initially a tender, private theme is transmuted by the very austerity and detachment of its execution. Lyricism is prevented from becoming sentimentality.

      From this standpoint, we can under- stand the meaning of the dynamism in Dancer with Daisy fig. And this is why the definition of plastic poetry resides here. One 41 Ibid. Sculptures et dessins, Paris, , p. The idea presented itself again in sculptures such as Reclining Figure II cat. In turn, however, this relationship reveals two different ways of conceiving Daphne, Both works are drawings in space. Both works are in iron and both were assembled using autogenous welding. Furthermore, the two pieces also enact the dematerialization of the sculpture and construct them- selves in the void, turning it into plasticity.

      Despite many points of contact, however, these are two different ways of conceiving the new sculpture and the new lyricism. Despite the analytical work he did, making cardboard mock-ups of many of his sculptures, the new moment helped him reinforce qual- ities connected with plastic expressivity, dematerialization of the sculptural block and the ability to replace the compact with the hollow, in order to encourage transparency and reduce everything to its defining lines, as can clearly be noted in Silhouette of a Young Man.

      In the last years of his life and work — he died in — Gargallo accentuated the sensation of dynamism and the presence of the arabesque. In these crosscutting paths there is always something left to be revisited. Ferrant on Ferrant is the artist who seems to want to travel through everything, even if not in the time or moment in which one would expect him to do so.

      But it is important to understand that the work of Ferrant — novecentista, neo-figurative, telluric, kinetic and, towards the end of his life, informal and lyrical — is the work of one who, while being an authentic innovator, was not interested in being recognized as such but as being reflected in the various possibilities of modern art arising around him. Perhaps these interludes of information and dates will be clarified one day. In the meantime, however, what remains is the need that Ferrant felt to formulate a poetry of air in relation to sculpture, in the way in which Bachelard would do.

      During this period following the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War, Ferrant took up the discussion he had left unfinished with the sculpture of the Thirties, brusquely interrupted between and In a certain sense, though, Ferrant summed things up and brought the earlier phase forward. I think this simply means that Ferrant never wanted to use either of the two terms as a justification or appeal, but that he deposited them in all his works.

      Picasso was very familiar with this yearning in his own works. It is simply the superficial that took off on its own. Il y a parfois animated, they become like a poetic composition. Few words are needed. The sculpture is an assembly of different elements, includ- ing several human disiecta membra, evoking the game of exquisite corpses in three dimensions. Picasso even said that this work from was his only authentically Surrealist production,2 although we should note that the sculpture alludes to the distinctive figure in the drawings entitled Construction SE C T I O N 5 with Swallows, dated February And yet both pertain to the imaginary.

      Furthermore, if we carefully examine the etching, we can see that the model is an erotic fantasy here as well, whereas the sculpture starts to seem credible, triggering a sense of eeriness — Das Unheimliche — akin to what automata might arouse. Thus, the sensation of real and super-real merge in this work by Picasso. He had already achieved this effect in his work Woman in Shirt. I would rather use from the Vollard Suite 74; cat. The two options are contained within each other, and they tell us first of all that what our physical eye actually sees is not objective, because the eye that moves between the subconscious and the conscious superimposes its own vision on the empirical datum.

      They also tell us that an image always contains an image-other. I am not referring to the European scene so much as to Arte Nuevo, the movement of plastic renewal promoted within the Spanish geography. Along this parallel path, just as super-reality is contained in reality and the real is a mirror of the super-real, the Modern Realism and Surrealism of Arte Nuevo eventually mingled or, rather, made themselves mutually permeable.

      The Meeting fig. A World brings us from the imaginary to everyday life, while The Meeting takes us from everyday life to the level of the disturbing. This sensation is accentuated by the way the artist investigates the relationship among the female figures, their bodies and clothing, so that we find ourselves thinking that the real subject of the painting is not at all what it seems. Folk Festival fig. Madrid, , I, pp.

      During this period, although Cubism showed signs of renewal and the echoes of Futurism also reached Spain, in a very complex framework of Euro- The well-known and very authoritative book by Franz Roh, Nach-Expressionismus. Magischer Rea- lismus. Curiously, the extreme sobriety of the original German edition, significantly Sachlichkeit, contrasted with the lively appearance of the Madrid edition, with the two-colour graphics of the cover that conveyed a sense of dynamism.

      What had been a mes- sage of composure in the Weimar Republic became a proposal of modernity in Spain. Much could be said about the parallels between modernity and new Realism, and on whether or not the latter was pertinent in the narration of the modern, particularly in the Catalan milieu. In any case, new Realism served the purpose of allowing Spain to speak, using the plastic language of a society undergoing a transformation that gradually came to be identified with new values.

      Its paradigm, independent of any oth- was the consequence of an already acquired sensitivity, rather than the detonator of a new plastic er proposal, was instead the Catalan Noucentisme. In Spain, Novecentismo developed under the banner of an art bringing potential. The poet Rafael Alberti, the musician Adolfo Salazar, It is likely that he had no interest in any of this.

      In effect, the artist was a friend of Juan Gris and in Paris he had observed the birth Josep de Togores, Couple on the Beach, Both seemed to be open to the possibility of maintaining the registers of traditional painting, adapting it to the times. But it must also be noted that the inspirations of the two artists were completely different. In turn, starting in the early Twenties Aurelio Arteta had defined the outlines of a luminous clas- sicism that could convey solidity, a sense of a transcendent and ethical value, in a Basque framework ever anchored to exalting the territorial myth and the world of traditional labour — sailors and farm- ers — among the lower classes.

      Nevertheless, the impulse of Realism towards modernity led him to adopt the models of the Italian Novecento — and we are still not sure how this happened — thus giving his figures a monumental and sculptural air that made them more sincere in their physical features yet arcane in their bearing. Shipwrecked Men cat. Solana took to extremes the sordid, tremendista and even anti-Enlightenment aspects of Black Spain, using a succulent but dirty palette that was masterly, albeit unpleasant: all of this without giving the least amount of space to social or political criticism, and without any interest in ancestral anthropological aspects.

      But Faral's etude et analyse is far from being exhaustive and is not the last word on this subject at all. Such presentations of works based on the method of explica- tion exist also outside of France. A detailed interpretation of 'A la recherche du temps perdu' Cambridge: Univ. Press, is a glorious interpretation of texts running through a whole work, from which decisive passages have been selected to show that for Proust style is "the revelation, impossible by direct or conscious means, of that immaterial something which is the qual- ity of the artist's unique vision" p.

      Others who want to show the originality of an author can no longer do without the insertion of at least a few textual analyses. Thus, Ivanca M. Festskrift nidgivet af Hans Majestaet Kongens Fbdselsdag The Scholarly Approach to Stylistic Interpretation Those who considered the explication as an aesthetical play, were surprised to see that the serious quest in interpretation was no less for truth than for beauty see nos.

      Roustan's as de- veloped in Les textes frangais commentes et expliques see no. Gustave COHEN — 39 — Essai d y explication du cimetiere marin Paris: Gallimard, ; 2e edition augmentee d'une glose analogue sur La jeune Parque, , encouraged by Paul Valery himself, published his penetrating interpretation, previously explained at the Sorbonne, of one of the most obscure poems of that author. Valery Paris: La Palladienne, Venettis is more critical than Cohen and decries Valery's intellectual and involuntarily burlesque formalism which tries to interpret ideas instead of embodying ideals in true poetry.

      But it was the German scholars who tried to make the expli- Stylistic Interpretation 7 cation strictly scholarly. As a sort of manifesto in favor of a conscious withdrawal from the historical method and a return to aesthetical description, the fact may be cited that a literary historian as well known as Hanns HEISS in — 41 — "Booz en- dormi," Festschrift fur Eduard Wechssler, BB, I , , contributed to the testimonial volume for an historically-minded colleague simply a stylistic interpretation of this poem of Victor Hugo. Heiss' opinion, like Spitzer's, is that stylistic interpreta- tion is at the same time the intrinsic explanation of the meaning of a poem, whereas the sponsors of the French explications did not think so.

      Hanns Heiss — 42 — "Victor Hugos Gedicht vom Spinnrad der Qmphale, ,, ANS, XCVIII , , becomes still more programmatic by dismembering the organism of the poem Le rouet d'Omphale to explain the symbolism of Omphale's spinning wheel at rest as being a reflection of Hercules' indul- gence in unheroic love, made all the more odious by the pictures of heroic deeds surrounding him.

      These serious interpretations, accompanied by some slight historical and comparative informa- tion, rapprochements, and everything necessary for an objec- tive approach, seemed to penetrate their subject "synchronical- ly," as one said with the new term of Saussurian linguistics.

      A detering example of this type of work, however, is M. Each inter- preter jeopardizes his high function when playing the school- master and replacing empathy by pedantry. The next step in interpretation was that of singling out the central element of a style in order to explain everything thereby. Grammont, from his specific metrical angle, gives a thorough interpretation of this famous Lafontainean fable, its metre and euphony; makes a stylistic comparison with Lafon- taine's predecessors Aesop, Nevelet in treating this subject; and stresses theoretically the fact that his interpretation is con- cerned with "la psychologie et Tart du langage" or "la linguis- tique d'art.

      Versuch einer stilistischen Analyse Glarus: Tschudi, , is a new type of presentation in so far as there is not only a synthetic summary of Calvin's style features as a letter writer on the basis of the elements first singled out juridical objectivity, austere images, double synonyms, etc. Thus the proof is given that the decisive features of interest, finally well grouped, were first discovered indiscriminately and without any preconceived idea. Extension of the Method to the Middle Ages The question whether such a descriptive analysis — from the modern viewpoint, and without a check on the historical condi- tions — was applicable to a medieval text became a strong point of contention when Emil WINKLER — 47 — "Von der Kunst des Alexiusdichters," ZRP, XLVII , , tried to analyse this short hagiographic epic on an artistic basis only, i.

      Making a particular point for the Middle Ages, E. CURTIUS —48— "Zur Inter- pretation des Alexiusliedes," ZRP, LVI , , an- swered Winkler that no aesthetical interpretation concerning such a remote century can be done without taking into considera- tion the historical conditions which at the time informed the in- terior aesthetics of a work of art. He proved that the composi- tion and style of the Alexis based on the number five can be neither recognized nor duly analyzed and appreciated without the knowledge of the medieval artes poeticae and their canons of beauty.

      Siding with Curtius' viewpoint, the final and best Extension to Hermetic Texts 9 Alexius interpretation stresses the proportions and antithesis of the poem as centering around the contrasts of bourgeois family ideals versus the imitation of Christ. Alexis: A Mathematical Demonstration? Extension to Hermetic Texts It goes without saying that any modern approach to a par- ticularly formal and difficult or obscure poet had to make the explication de textes the center of the whole study.

      The principle involved is that hermetic poems have to undergo a stylistic analysis as the first step to their understanding. This sonnet had been made still more obscure than it was by statements that it meant "the battle of Actium" Poizat , or "the poet's triumph over the sun at his desk at night" Thibaudet. Now Spoerri interprets the text as flight from the temptation of suicide by an inner overcoming of the illusion of life. The poem as an incantation and abstraction from life conceals behind the symbol of the traveler the concept of the poet as a man in an unusual pose and setting.

      There is in these fifty-six lines Mallarme's whole Ars poetica. Mile Roulet's interpetation of Mal- larme analyst interprets this poem as the metamorphosis of the ages and the great cataclysm in which finally the sea engulfs God. She presents a kind of interlinear prose version checked on another variation of the same theme, A la nue accablante tu.

      Scholia offer the comment on the subtleties, and a fine study on structure presents the poem as a pyramid This is much too elaborate an effort to cope with Mallarme's oddities. Claude Roulet — 60 — Elements de poetique mallarmeenne d'apres le poeme 'Un coup de des jamais n'abolira le hasard' Neuchatel: Griffon, , continues the previous inter- pretation No.

      Roulet — 61 — Version du poeme de Mallarme: 'Un coup de des jamais n'abolira le hasard' Neu- chatel: Griffon, Here the explanation of the poem is given as the cosmic, successive unfolding from unity to duality, from duality to multiplicity, and from multi- plicity again to unity or nothingness — all these phases being re- tained in simultaneousness by the poetical work of art.

      This explanation, doubtful in its philosophical implications, aptly describes Mallarme's work: "Spiraling-in of successive ap- proximations. The armature. Henry A. The mean- ing is not easily recognizable, because the connotative elements are steeped in the imagery of anguish and emptiness at night in a drawing room through whose windows the Great Bear is re- flected in the mirror — the whole absorbed by the vast mystery of the universe, to all of which the rhythmical and melodious uncouth elements provide "a cabalistic feeling.

      It is impossible to enumerate here all the Mallarme and Valery studies, although all of them may be explanations by definition, but of extreme poetic material. Here may be mentioned only that V explication de textes has become today a highly academic affair in France, through the creation of "la chaire d'histoire des creations litteraires en France" entrusted to Jean POMMIER, who gave his inaugural lecture on — 65 — Paul Valery et la crea- tion litteraire Paris: Encyclopedic francaise, Italian Methods In Italy the method of stylistic explanation is spreading now into the scholarly works on Dante after having started half a century ago in the analytical Lecturae Dantis.

      These lectures were delivered in Or San Michele in Florence and were then published as a series. Getto connects closely the stylistic and structural phenomena 12 Explanation of Texts and proves the objectivity of his interpretation by their mutual, demonstrable relation. He is also known as a Tasso interpreter.

      Such stylistic explanations have been extended to other authors: to Ariosto by M. Gustarelli added to earlier explanations of Tasso and other authors, e. Alcune paggine analizzate Milano: Val- lardi, On a more scholarly level appears Fausto MON- TANARI —73— "Pianto antico," CN, I ,1 , , where it is seen that the greatness of this poem by Carducci consists in the sacrifice of each individual sentiment whose verbal expres- sion would have been incompatible with the character of the type of universal poetic language which Carducci felt bound to use. V, fasc. Devoto, saying that his critic had discovered style features of which he had never been aware and which actually existed in his own novel.

      A similar exper- ience was granted to Leo Spitzer, years ago, when Henri Bar- busse and other French authors stated that his analyses of their work was perfectly correct, although not flattering. Gadda's answer bears the title: — 76 — "Postille a una analisi stilistica," L, I , But the texts are held to previously established categories such as descriptions, oratory, simplicity, contrast, nature poetry, cosmic poetry, musicality, etc. Dalla Grammatica all 9 analisi stilistica e letteraria Milano: Mondadori, , is a more modern type of introduction to the comprehension of style and stylistic analysis.

      Excellently chosen examples, partly analyzed by students, are reminiscent of the French work by Servais Etienne no. Examples are also offered in form of comparative material with aids for the interpretation. There are very good definitions of style problems p. Interpretation de una poesia hermetica Buenos Aires: Losada, ; 2nd edition Alonso intro- duces the reader into the aesthetic difficulties of an obscure modern author of the Mallarme type. Although he gives much more than an analysis, working it out to an impressive syn- thesis of the elements of modernistic style, the interpretations are the center of his study.

      In one example, the poet writes: Tu estds de pie sobre la tierra , llena de dientes y reldmpagos. The philologist discovers the beauty and trick of such sugges- tions and vague constructions with his translation: Estds lleva de risas en las que muestras tus blancos dientes, y se entreabren tus labios con reldmpagos de purpura p.

      Alonso however is less pedantic and more ingenious. Alonso became the "interpreter" par ex- cellence. A consciously educational explication of the French type has been offered only for Portuguese by F. Costa MARQUES — 84 — Problemas da analise liter aria Coimbra: Goncalves, ; he uses the comparative method in linking together related texts, and surpasses his French models by stressing the inseparability of content and form. A wealth of first class interpretations of poetical texts from the siglo de oro in Spain has been embodied in the theoretical work of Damaso Alonso, Poesia Espafiola see no.

      Importance for Criticism and Literary History It is a curious fact that the more exact an explication is, the more it leads to the aesthetic core and thus to the enjoyment of poetry. Finally he considers the explication as a means of replacing the impressionistic vagueness in criticism: "Je sais cependant reconnaitre que ces recherches que je trouve peu fructueuses ont du moins le merite de poursuivre la pre- cision. L'intention en est excellente" p. Auerbach links each text to its cultural background, and makes the changing spirit of the time responsible for the change in the flux of realistic style.

      With admirable skill, these works try to offer norms for an elegant style and canons for an artistic language with which one may appraise the achievements of good writers. The number of editions reached by the books of Albalat reveals the interest of the French public in verbal art. These useful books did not de- serve the rebuke of Brunetiere and Faguet in , as they do not deserve the very witty insult which the Normaliens of today aim at them with the parody of Moreas : Albalat, Albalat, morne plaine. The titles of his main works are : — 90 — L'art d'ecrire enseigne en vingt legons Paris: Colin, , — 91 — La forma- tion du style par V assimilation des auteurs Paris: Colin, , — 92 — Le travail du style enseigne par les corrections manu- scrites des grands ecrivains Paris: Colin, , — 93 — - Com- ment il faut lire les auteurs classiques frangais Paris: Colin, , — 94 — Comment il ne faut pas ecrire Paris : Plon, , — 95 — Comment on devient ecrivain Paris: Plon, Be- ginning always with model authors, Albalat attempts to reach, by abstraction and elimination, a sort of essential determination of style, literary genre, artistic literary history, literary criticism, correct translations of foreign literary works, etc.

      So are A. Interesting is the attempt at a scientific art d'ecrire, by the astronomer Abbe Th. It offers certain fundamental rela- tions, like le mot propre et V 'exactitude , la phrase et la clarte, le role du substantif, V elegance et le bon gout. Thus he was aware of an important modern problem.

      These Arts d'ecrire recognize, like the famous pasticheur Reboux, that with one's natural personal style one still can "learn" to be inde- pendent like Mme. Colette, clear like the Princess Bibesco, lively like Mme. Barbusse, "spirituel" like A. France, pathetic like Maupassant, "evocateur" like A. Daudet, and great like G. Among the imitations of these French pat- terns is a rather original Italian book by G.

      MARI — — L'arte dello scrivere Milano: Hoepli, , written "affinche il lettore conosca tutte le barriere da superare" p. Stylistics 1. French, Spanish and Portuguese From a theoretical point of view, the bell seems to toll for the arts d f ecrire in consideration of the sharp distinction made be- tween mannerism and style. The Croce-Vosslerian concept of style, according to which the art of writing can be "true" only if it is the necessary and unique expression of psychological con- 18 Arts of Writing ditions in a writer, would practically exclude the imitation of authors as a lame counterfeit, an external trick in which the very core and heart are lacking.

      More than ever before, the psychological-aesthetical method has made clear that le style est de I'homme meme. That was understood in the Spanish world. But we must hasten to make clear that there is not only an artistic, but also an affective concept of style and its selective use. Not only do the literary artefacts have a style, but also the common languages and the non-artistic individual speeches.

      This concept of style is the object of Charles Bally's stylistique as opposed to literary stylistics. Heidelberg : Winter, ; 2nd edition, ; 3d ed. He has the merit of having preceded Vossler and Spitzer in modern stylistics. He follows an idea of Gustav Grober, who distin- guished already between objective and subjective language, and the distinction between langue and parole as made by De Saus- sure. Bally's formula, which revolutionized traditional stylistics and made it a worthy branch of linguistics, not of literature, is this: La stylistique etudie. Bally, the Swiss, has reached full acknowledgment in France where modern treatises follow him closely : J.

      MAROUZEAU — — Precis de stylistique frangaise Paris: Masson, , 2nd edition is a survey of the peculiarities of any form of an enonce as to sounds, spelling, form, syntax, vocabulary, sen- tence, word order and rhythm.

      You are here

      The contribution of Marouzeau, a classical scholar, is the replacement of the older concept of Stylistics 19 stylistics as "une sorte de code du bon francais" by a modern study of "Pattitude que prend l'usage, ecrivant ou parlant, vis-a- vis du materiel que la langue lui fournit," his doubtful aim being to "faire la psychologie de l'auteur de Penonce.

      LE GRAND — — Methode de stylistique francaise Paris: De Gigord, , 8th edition , less pre- tentious, stresses that in an age where the good writers are read very little — even in France, literary par excellence — interest must be stimulated by a systematic introduction into their means of expression. All this seems to suggest that in France the de- cision for the linguistic Bally-type of stylistics versus the literary Vossler-type has been made.

      The leader Charles Bruneau does not leave any doubt about it. Bally' s type of stylistique, as considering preferably words, syno- nyms, phraseology, metaphor and construction, was able to be re- fined by its application to literature: Marcel CRESSOT — — Le style et ses techniques Paris: Presses Universitaires, , actually includes artistic problems, e. An excellent, and also more practical modern literary stylistics, evidently dominated by the Bally-Marouzeau-Cressot trends, is Henri J. Godin shows how modern authors handle in the most individual manner, syntax and lexi- con, phraseology and figures of speech, how differently they represent the same topic, and to what extent stylistic problems can be clarified by the comparison of an original text with its translation.

      Thus Godin's study corresponds to the old program of Charles BALLY — — U etude systematique des moyens d y expression Geneva: Eggimann, , but expands to the literary-artistic sector of affective-imaginative language. Mod- ern stylistic adepts lack technical terms to discuss their prob- lems and to circumscribe their findings. Mun- ich: Hueber, , was wise in presenting a sound basic ter- minology for any kind of stylistic studies, revamping the tradi- tional tropes and figures with Latin and French examples. His reasonable concern is that without a minimum of terms agreed upon, the interpretatio moderna, however artistic or stylistic he says "stilsprachlich" with contemptuous quotation marks it may be, becomes an aesthetical game without any orientation of philological seriousness.

      Points of interest in this book are word-fantasy, plurality of means of expression, evoca- tive efforts, intellectual and affective values of the adjective, and stylistic effects of the concordance of the participle. For this latter case he discusses the variants of a famous strophe of the Lusiadas describing the march of Leonor de Sepulveda through the African desert: Despois de ter pisado pisada longamente dos delicados pes a area ardente.

      He makes his decision in favor of the feminine form, because only the feminine form anticipating area ardente suggests the vision of the immense desert, exactly what the author wants to emphasize. Incercare de psihologie Uterara Iasi: Fratti Saragna, He, too, like Lapa, combines the approach of Bally with that of Spitzer by adding to the emotional the fanciful elements in the speech of his country. Actually, without saying so, he follows the prin- ciple of the syntactician, Eugen Lerch, as he looks stylistically Appraisal of Details 21 at phenomena like accent, sound, phonetic symbolism, rhythm, the parts of the sentence, morphology, syntax, word formation and vocabulary, topoi, repetition, ellipses and proverbs.

      His material comes from direct observation as well as from popular authors like Caragiale and Creanga. If we include in the list of modern stylistics the Italian elementary sketch by B. The classical philologists do not think differently today about the problem of style. Press, , says pp. The choice and use of words, the sound of them separately and in combination, the order of words, the structure of clause and sentence, the use of figures of speech and thought; all these can be analyzed. But the final secret lies not in them but in the way they are used and blended and related to the thought.

      In other words, style studies must be linked to structure studies. Appraisal of Details of the Art of Writing What still remains interesting is the discussion by clever critics of certain stylistic propensities of great writers in little things, which in minor writers would be faults. The conclusions which Criticus draws from his method of checking on the cor- rectness or incorrectness of minutiae, while wholly neglecting the organism of the works from which the examples are taken, would revaluate the authors on an almost absurd scale.

      These propos do not make the absurd attempt to correct but to discover in the authors, even unknown ones, what is for them and not for others une reussite stylistique. The Swedish critic Ernst BENDZ, doing the same type of work, comes intrinsically close to the modern scholarly tenden- cies, when in his — — Andre Gide et Vart d'ecrire Paris: Messageries du livre, , he notes the author's typical words, such as amour, desir, tendresse, ferveur, passion, extase, vo- lupte, ivresse, fremissement, or underlines his habit of putting long adverbs before adjectives, such as "obstinement doulou- reux," "morbidement doux," or even between verbs and their objects: "habiter eperdument un paysage," "oter brusquement les souliers.

      Bendz has done a similar study on the language of Valery — — Paid Valery et Vart de la prose Goteborg: Cumpert, , where he picks out sentences with comments such as "Se suivent en trille gracieuse la plupart des voyelles de la langue" p. Bendz expanded recently his style studies, which in Sweden had appeared in as Nutida fransk prosakonst, under the title: — — Visages d'ecrivains. Notes sur Gide, Lacretelle etc. Paris: Les Presses de la Cite, Style proper, however, is the concern of the essay on Mauriac only, pp. Etudes de style faites a Radio-Lausanne Bienne: Chandelier, char- acterizes briefly the typical expressions of twenty-six authors from Villon to Verlaine.

      Matila C. GHYKA —— Sortileges du verbe Paris: Gallimard, , talks about the material a good writer "should" use, stressing the suggestive character of certain words and the importance of metaphors and analogies. Then he proceeds to the types of great symphonic composition represented by Mallarme and Proust. An Englishman and a Frenchman together have selected ninety representative passages and prefaced them with pertinent remarks on style and the problem of translation in order to open the eyes of the stylistically blind : J.

      Bell, Such a demon- stration made by capable critics can be very illuminating since exaggerations are like a magnifying glass for looking at genuine style. Ivoire, , and L. Certain faits divers are here retold in the manner of different authors. By overcharging the striking features of a particular style one can learn, besides the fun which these pastiches carry with them, exactly what is mannerism as opposed to real style of spontaneous expression. Paris: Grasset, , latest edition Other pastiches open the mind of the public at large to literary criticism, e.

      The content is overstressed as compared to form in Anonymous — — Faux en ecriture, aux depens de Jean Paulhan, Alain, Apollinaire, etc. Paris: Juliard, Here in thirty-five parodied authors the erotical element is somewhat exploited. It seems a good sign for the stylistic importance of the lit- erary parody, that "Les Pasticheurs" are treated as "auxiliaires de la critique" in Henri CLOUARD — — Histoire de la litterature francaise du symbolism e a nos jours, II, de a Paris: Michel, , pp.

      Paris: Ducray, A similar work of Gandon's is Cent ans de jargon ou de Vecriture artiste au style canille P. The Italian parallel consciously based on scholarly, modern analytical principles p. I vols. II-IV later, s. In his introduction Chabas makes a good distinction between estilo and estilizacion, una voz de falsete vol. Excluding as "voz de falsete," e. Ricardo Leon, he finds on the other hand unique personal style features in Gabriel Mir6, the landscape-painter with Valencian semantics; Antonio Machado, the poet of a style "desnudo, japones, de ensueno, clasico" ; Juan Ramon Jimenez, poet of "vibraciones que dan eternidad a su palabra"; Manuel Machado, stylist of "nuevos oleos liricos que copian los originales" ; and other traits appearing in Valle Inclan, Azorin, Baroja, Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, Perez de Ayala, Ramon Gomez de la Serna, Benavente, Marquina, Arniches, Gregorio Martinez Sierra.

      Different Drafts The transition from any appraisal of literary art to the truly philological and scientific approach is reached as soon as the comparative method is used. Albalat No. If comparative results are not fundamentally philological, they are at least an objective means of appraising the stylistic usage of words and locutions. Abbe Vincent compares the style of the Introduction a la vie devote in its final edition of with the first one of , and shows how the devout humanist was changing his almost flamboyant style into a preclassical style through a more rigid concept of the logical-mental elements, by introducing a new rhythm into a prose with "finales habilement bouclees et bien tombantes," and finally, by a more intense poetization of the original images through a transformation of certain similes into condensed meta- phors.

      The author points out that the stylistic consciousness of the seventeenth century was already present in St. Francis de Sales in the sense of the poignant phrase of Mme. Thus Vincent, on the basis of a stylistic comparison alone, bestows on St. Francis de Sales the honor of having per- fected the classic numerus before Guez de Balzac. Joseph COPPIN — — Etude sur la grammaire et le vocabulaire de Montaigne d'apres les variantes des 'Essais' Lille: Facultes catholiques, , discovers by comparison the aim of Mon- taigne's style, "Pexpressivite des mots choisis. Caen, , conversely has attained aesthetic-psychological re- sults from the comparison of V.

      Hugo's variants, which he has supplemented in a complementary thesis — — Essai sur la psychologie des Contemplations Paris: Presses universitaires, Glotz infers from the relation between the final form and the first and second, on the basis of cancelations and correc- tions, certain principles about the process of creation in V. Hugo : "La plupart des variantes. This intelligence is reflected by the antithetical and symmetrical sense of order stronger than Hugo's lyrical nebulosity.

      It may be that Glotz is going a little too far in formulating such far-reaching conclusions about the poet's evolution as to designate emphatically the year to be the turning point from Romanticism to Realism. Using the variants of V. Franz has given other instances of the same type of investigation, e. He also adds some introductory observations with the suggestion that if the reader himself collaborates when examining this study, the variants will undoubtedly help him "remonter a la source mysterieuse du genie" p.

      A similar approach to Marcel Proust can be found in D. This type of study can be done with intricate refinement. Later variants do not necessarily constitute a development toward better art, as is assumed by G. A particular piquancy is inherent in the style corrections of a style theoretician, as shown by H.

      The descriptions of nature, as well as of the armies, the elephants, and the chieftains, offer the same precise conclusions as to Flau- bert's growing perfection in picturesqueness, rhythm, and melo- diousness all combined, but seem slightly detrimental to the original clarity. A study of variants from different viewpoints precedes the edition of the first cast of V. Premiere version des Miserables Paris: Baudiniere, Bovary," MH, , is a marvelous inventory of original vir- tuoso passages of description sacrificed to a more mature taste.

      Flauberts Tentation de Saint An- toine. A fine study of emendations in the Spanish field is Edward M. This study was continued on a broader basis in Romera-Navarro's — — Estudio del autografo de 'El Heroe' de Gracian. This book represents pains- taking investigations. Only 3. The motives for the cor- rection are never figures of speech as such, but only the care for appropriateness, precision, clarity, vigor, variety, liveliness, con- cision, equilibrium, elegance.

      Thus all types of expression, par- ticularly the Gongoristic hyperbaton, were eligible for stylistic improvement. In the Italian area there is a very fine study of variants con- cerning the Macaronic Latin : C. In general Petrarca Sources 29 goes from a rhetorical to a lyrical concept, or a compromise be- tween both, before he marks his respective, corrected passage with Hoc placet. An example: 1. Ma che fanno i colori dinanzi al cieco 2. Ma non pur mo' cominci ad esser cieco 3.

      Ma canto al sordo e color mostro al cieco 4. Ma canto al sordo e faccio lume al cieco. Mario FUBINI —— "II Petrarca artefice" in his Studi sulla letteratura del Rinascimento Firenze: Sansoni, , , shows by the comparison of two drafts of a Petrarchan sonnet Nel tempo lasso de la notte, quando and Tutto V dl piango; e poi la notte quando how, out of two Dante reminiscences, can grow an entirely original poem which nobody would suspect to be "literature" and not life.

      Sources The stylistic investigation of poetical sources has undergone a deep transformation. While studies of the older type proceeded in this field without any aesthetic inspiration, and made a plagi- arist out of every later poet, the modern method of investigation makes use of the minute examination of sources only in order to evaluate the originality of a later poet despite his sources and to affirm the continuous enrichment of the stylistic treasures of speech. Les sources des Trophees Paris: Presses franchises, , dedi- cated to each poem a study on its probable sources, in view of the literary patrimony present in the poet's consciousness.

      Henry et Vart de Maupassant, Diss. Strasbourg, Ross is convinced that O. Henry learned from Maupassant a whole series of narrative devices : the start- ing from an incident, the ironic tinge, and the surprise of the unpredictable end, called in America "the 0. Henry twist. In view of the different forms of literary portraits and the questions of priority and imitation in seven- teenth century France, J.

      It would be a methodologically sound basis not to consider as style studies any vague source suggestions. The source must show unique striking features as a formal principle which pro- duces statable, formal variations in its imitation. Norman L. TORREY —— "Rousseau's Use of the Sunrise Theme," RR, XXXII , , has attempted to explain descriptive details of this topic by showing that Rousseau did not stylize directly observed nature, but that he used literary patterns, namely his predecessors, Diderot and Albrecht von Haller, Thus, sometimes it is the manner of treatment of the same subject which makes us understand the stylistic influence of one author on another.

      Cameron finds fault with Desportes' over-clarifica- tion p. I Paris: Presses Sources 31 Modernes, , in which he found that the misunderstood beau of Ariosto was turned into a sentimental joli in France. A great deal of stylistic material can be found in a similar work by Chandler B. Press, The profound investigation of the stylistic relation of an author to his principal sources can offer most tangible results which are far from being hasty realizations.

      This has been clearly shown by N. Besangon Bari, , where by means of com- parison of twenty-one Contes by La Fontaine with twenty-one Novelle by Boccaccio, perspectives are attained on the individual style as well as on that of race, epoch and country. Source and imitation must not belong to different literatures however.

      The investigation of the sources may also include more subtle suggestions going beyond the philological comparison of texts. Helmut HATZFELD —— "Don Quijote und Madame Bo- vary," IPh, III , ; , has made clear that the French author imitated the Spaniard in his fusion of the char- acters with the cultural background, the combination of empathy and criticism, the symphonic presentation, the creation of an atmosphere by exterior details, and the raising of description to vision by an impressionistic technique in composition and style, A similar study was the concern of Albert PAUPHILET — — "Ronsard a la maniere du Roman de la Rose," MH, , where a single theme Bel Accueil invited the imitator to wonderful, free variations.

      Fernand DESONAY — — Le Grand Meaulnes a" Alain Foumier, Essai de Commentaire psychologique et litteraire Bruxelles: Edition des Artistes, had the ingenious idea of tracing back the single elements of the famous novel to decisive passages in Fournier's correspondence, which elucidate details such as his preference for sea and music metaphors, the language of the peasants, the motifs of "la petite fille," of "la jeune fille ideale" fit for a castle, and of "la revelation d'un monde nouveau" taken from the then recent aviation. Finally there is in this cor- respondence Fournier's whole poetics on the roman-reve, its realism, its sensibility and their insertion into life, and the stress on atmosphere inherent in the single hours of the day.

      Precise information lies hidden under the vague title of a comprehensive study of D. As a master of source studies, Damaso ALONSO — — La poesia de San Juan de la Cruz Madrid: Consejo, , has worked out to what extent the poems of this Saint, so highly original, are definitely rooted in the Canticle of Canticles, in Spanish folk poetry and in Garcilaso de la Vega, but less directly than indirectly through the spiritual travesty of the eglogvs by Sebastian de Cordoba see also nos.

      Carlos CLAVERf A — — "Flaubert y La Regenta," in his Cinco estudios de literatura espanola moderna Salamanca: Colegio trilingue, , , underlines that Clarin's common interest with Flaubert in overcoming the bourgeois romanticism entirely removes from him the brand of a slavelike imitation of Madame Bovary, the more so because a transposition of the milieu certainly belongs to original creation. Malcolm D. Quatrains of iambic tetrameters and trimeters alternating ab ab, are replaced by 8-line stanzas, each containing an average of 8 syllables, with the pattern abbe decc.

      Sobre los precedentes 34 Stylistic Comparison of Texts de una poesia de San Juan de la Cruz," BAE, XXVI , Con toscos instrumentos nos aproximamos a una tierna misteriosa criatura: ese bosque hondisimo, lobrego, susurrante, de la creacion poetica.