Persiguiendo ángeles (Narrativas Oblicuas nº 12) (Spanish Edition)
Sontag: , Zavala; Sontag, Una mujer anciana a su lado, le dan un medio abrazo, parece que le apoya y le intentan reconfortar ante una suceso terrible. Una tragedia que les afecta, y de la cual son victimas. En: www. Por la imagen la historia se conforma por once personajes que en diferentes magnitudes expresan el dolor ante el conflicto que representa el enfrentamiento con la muerte.
En este rol las mujeres del relato son reconocidas como cercanas al occiso: madres, hijas, vecinas, hermanas o abuelas. Se entiende por conflicto, como explica Iven Lavandier , todo tipo de situaciones o de sentimientos conflictivos. Pueden ser sufrimientos, dificultades, o distintos problemas como peligros, fracasos, desdichas o miseria. En la lectura de esta imagen, el espectador identifica que el conflicto es la lucha por la supervivencia.
En el suspenso definido por el conflicto se evoca la incertidumbre del lector acerca de las acciones de los personajes, y se resuelve por medio de las decisiones tomadas por ellos mismos. Zavala, Arnheim , Dondis, Bibliografia Arnheim, Rudolf. Eudeba Ediciones, Argentina, Barthes, Roland. Castellanos, Ulises.
Manual de fotoperiodismo. Retos y Soluciones. Chabaud, Jaime. Dondis, Donis A. La sintaxis de la imagen. Gustavo Gili, Fontcuberta, J. Barcelona: Blume, Revista Lavandier, Yves La dramaturgia. El significado de las artes visuales, Argentina: Infinito, Sebeok A. Sontag Susan. Vilches, Lorenzo. Barcelona: Paidos, Eco, G. Lo visible es inmediato y sin sentido para Gadamer. Lizarazo, En este camino P. En este caso las unidades narrativas sintagmas , se identifican de acuerdo a dos tipos: funcionales e indiciales.
Entre sus exponentes se encuentran Foucault, Jaques Derrida y entre sus fuentes encontramos a Nietzsche, entre otros. El relato. Barcelona, Ed. Darley, A. Cultura visual digital. Foix, M. El cine posmoderno: un nihilismo ilustrado en Historia general del cine vol XII. Madrid, Ed. Gadamer, H. El estatuto de lo bello.
La mirada opulenta. Jameson, F. Posmodernismo y sociedad de consumo en La Posmodernidad. SXXI, Y Como si fuera la primera vez Peter Segal, E. El pasado se recrea cada vez que recordamos. Definitivamente necesitamos del tiempo pasado y del futuro para dar un sentido al presente. Las cosas imitan a las Ideas. Esta idea de memoria parece muy distante de la mirada de Frederich Nietzsche, quien la identifica con el dolor. Para Nietzsche el hombre libre es aquel que puede hacer promesas, ante la fuerza opositora del olvido.
Ante el recuerdo acumulado Nietzsche plantea la posibilidad del ejercicio del olvido. Nietzsche, Frederich, Heidegger invita a voltear con todos los sentidos al Ser, al verdadero sentido del Ser. El hombre es un oyente privilegiado de la existencia, lo que hace es intentar escuchar la voz del Ser en una suerte de correspondencia entendida como responsabilidad con y para el ente. Heidegger vincula el significado o el olvido del significado, de la esencia del Ser,.
En El Ser y el tiempo Heidegger maneja la idea de que la temporalidad es asunto crucial en el Ser que somos. Ricoeur, 20 Por lo tanto, tiene una incidencia sobre el pasado. No tenemos mejor referencia del pasado, de los acontecimientos del pasado, que nuestra memoria. Es en el transcurrir del tiempo y en el momento dentro del espacio, que vamos generando memoria. Los personajes principales de cada uno se encuentran inmersos en realidades aparentes y mundos discordantes que coinciden en la misma acuciante necesidad de la memoria.
Cada plegaria aceptada y con cada una, una renuncia. Es necesario renunciar a nuestros pecados y regresar a la inocencia inicial de nuestra vida. La memoria nos condena y al borrarla nos hace aspirantes de nuevo a la eternidad. Olvidar nos ofrece la posibilidad de empezar de nuevo y de cometer los mismos errores.
Ouyang decide no tomar ni una gota de aquel vino mientras que Huang se emborracha hasta olvidar todo su pasado. Muere en combate mientras intenta acabar con una banda de ladrones de caballos. Es la esposa del mejor amigo de Huang. Regresa al. Los extermina y de paso venga la muerte del hermano de la joven de los huevos y la mula. Ouyang los ve partir y por primera vez siente celos y reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de partir.
Su amada ha muerto, pero antes le da a Huang un misterioso vino y le pide que lo lleve a Ouyang. Huang bebe del vino y pierde la memoria. En el filme cada personaje vive en soledad debido a las decisiones que ha tomado en el pasado. Es imposible tratar de borrar esos recuerdos, pues permanecen ligados a nuestras emociones. Esta idea se remarca en el personaje de Huang Yaoshi, quien comprende que la memoria es la fuente de su sufrimiento y bebe el vino del olvido.
Las emociones son eternas. Su memoria a corto plazo desaparece. Se dice a menudo que nuestro pasado nos condena, que somos quienes somos porque antes fuimos. Somos el resultado de nuestra experiencia, nuestro pasado y nuestros recuerdos determinan nuestra posibilidad en el presente. El problema es que recuerda que es el responsable de la muerte de su esposa, a causa precisamente de su incapacidad de crear nuevos recuerdos. Entonces decide reconstruir ese recuerdo que lo atormenta, para dejar de sentir dolor.
En los cuentos de Borges el tiempo y el espacio se repiten impidiendo el cambio, ignorando el movimiento; pertenecen a una realidad eterna, perfecta, totalizadora. Lo terrible no es ser inmortal, sino saberse inmortal, porque imposibilita la vida. En Ashes of time el nombre del vino del olvido Una afortunada vida feliz, convierte la memoria en la causa del dolor de todos los personajes.
Pensaba que. Sin embargo, esas decisiones junto con los hechos que dejaron huella emocional en nosotros, viven en nuestro recuerdo, como si nunca hubiera transcurrido el tiempo. Leonard nos responde diciendo que la memoria es traicionera, la memoria no es de fiar, porque puede ser distorsionada. Ese no es el. Nuestros recuerdos se basan en sensaciones irreproducibles con palabras. La intensidad del recuerdo va de la mano con la fuerza emocional del momento vivido.
Los recuerdos no son distorsionados ni manipulados; por el contrario, son sepultados y enterrados por la angustia, la infelicidad y el dolor. Podemos cuestionar la fiabilidad de la memoria, pero lo que no podemos hacer es tratar de vivir sin ella. Muchas veces la memoria es una cualidad rebelde, hiriente y torturante. Otras veces esta misma memoria falla y nos quedamos perdidos en ese tortuoso camino del querer recordar. El relato corre bajo esta premisa. Nuestro pasado no es perfecto porque nosotros mismos no lo somos. El tiempo es inexorable a pesar de que queramos detenerlo para recomponer algunas cosas, pero no hay manera de hacerlo, debemos ser capaces de vivir con todo y nuestras decisiones.
En Eterno resplandor de una mente sin recuerdos la memoria pesa de tal forma que es mejor borrarla, es mejor deshacerse de ella en una suerte de olvidarnos de nosotros mismos. La felicidad no es un lugar al cual llegar, ni es un tiempo congelado en el que podemos detenernos. Pero el relato nos revela que esto no es verdadero, lo vemos como un hombre enamorado. La realidad es imaginaria, y no necesariamente falsa. En Eterno resplandor de una mente sin recuerdos, Lacuna Inc. Pasados esos cinco minutos debemos concentrarnos en el mundo inmediato y ajustarnos a las expectativas que el mundo posmoderno exige.
La memoria, nos dice el mundo posmoderno, es la causa de la infelicidad, por ello es indispensable eliminarla, aun cuando esto implica, en realidad, el desprecio por la individualidad del ser humano. Estamos sujetos a una sociedad que olvida y nos olvida. Nos convertimos por consecuencia en sujetos que no aprenden y que al mismo tiempo no recuerdan, simplemente saben repetir datos de memoria, una caja receptora de datos.
La memoria es vista entonces como una carga que arrastra consigo las elecciones pasadas, lo que implica que nuestros recuerdos puedan convertirse en una condena por lo que no elegimos. El hecho real es que no se borran nuestros problemas. La memoria y las emociones cohabitan en nuestra mente y al parecer se entrecruzan. Los acontecimientos que mejor recordamos son aquellos que han dejado una fuerte huella emocional en nosotros. Asume su finitud y busca superar su propia temporalidad dejando huella en la memoria de los otros, de las personas que lo conocieron o que lo amaron.
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Nos prometen la felicidad permanente, un estado emocional sin dolor, pero sin recuerdos y sin historia. Alianza, Madrid Jameson, Frederic, Ensayos sobre el posmodernismo. De Francisco Larroyo. Breviarios 34, F. Del horror y otras bondades El horror es tan antiguo como el cine, por no decir como el hombre mismo. Jekyll y Mr. Es decir, el terror a partir un hombre construido por el hombre el monstruo y el horror que proviene de lo desconocido el vampiro. El erotismo occidental pretende flirtear, si acaso, con el pecado y el mal, con el caos y lo prohibido en general.
Culturalmente, pareciera ser que todo sexo con amor es bueno, y todo sexo sin amor es utilitario, y en consecuencia, malo y pecaminoso. Pero nunca de manera libre. El placer excesivo lujuria, gula es pecado. El mismo concepto de buffete es terriblemente anticristiano y equivalentemente exitoso. En otras palabras, el sexo a diferencia del helado de tres chocolates no existe libre de pecado ni en la realidad ni en la pantalla ni en el espectacular en la carretera. Socialmente, hay sexo muy penalizado, como lo es el sexo por dinero. El cine puede ir a donde otros medios no pueden, al interior del sexo proscrito, el sexo excesivo, el sexo pecaminoso.
Y el sexo puro en pantalla es susceptible de ser conceptualizado, igual que el sexo puro en la realidad que es con lo que empezamos. Para R. Freixas y J. El erotismo del cine convencional ha experimentado con las. Marilyn Monroe como Theda Bara. Ahora bien, hemos mencionado con anterioridad la mezcla del erotismo con el concepto de horror, que ya hemos definido a detalle. Van Helsing y Harker deciden por un lado, eliminar al conde y por el otro, salvar a Mina. Sin embargo, en la historia de la femme fatale, es la mujer la que por lo general, se beneficia de la dependencia de los hombres, se invierten los papeles.
Entonces la belleza y las bellas historias de amor, se tornaban en fealdad y horror. Es decir, aquel que falta, es robado, se desea, etc. Mujer vs. Finalmente se les torturaba. Sin embargo, las excepciones existen por supuesto. Un criterio al fin, que se ha sabido explotar cabalmente. Bienvenidos a la posmodernidad. Aki, pudiendo ya dominar a Michio, se convirtiendo, de golpe, en la dominada, cuando Michio, ante el poder ilimitado sobre ella, la viola. La sociedad no estaba lista.
Si Willow ha de ser la femme fatale que buscamos, nos daremos cuenta de que ella existe, efectivamente, de manera enteramente liberada de la estaca. Willow ciertamente tiene todo el porte sexual de la vampiresa, toma lo que quiere y lo quiere todo. Haberse mantenido firme en la prueba ritual hace al sargento Howie acreedor a ser sacrificado. Miss Rose hace otro tanto en persuadir al sargento Howie de irse por donde ha venido.
Basta un vistazo para darse cuenta de que la femme fatale se ha descompuesto en varias partes. Helen es fuerte, pero no dominante, es sexual, a pesar de ser pura y muy maternal. Auxiliary do 84 , does 40 , can 61 , do 45 , does 28 , can 43 , and modal could 89 , had 93 , has , could 32 , had 42 , has verbs have , might 17 , should , have , might 43 , will , would , 0 , should 18 , will , etc. Connectors But 64 , Despite 11 , How- But 34 , Despite 5 , How- ever 27 , If 31 , also 95 , and ever 16 , If 13 , also 78 , , as , because 29 , and , as , because but , despite 24 , if 66 , 17 , but 75 , despite 15 , like 36 , must 17 , or 81 , if 30 , like 17 , must 8 , or than , though 12 , while 40 , than 63 , though 6 , 35 , etc.
Table 2. Comparison of word categories from the word lists and frequencies analysis of The Guardian with The Telegraph. Raw frequencies The above findings can corroborate the results obtained from the concordance search analysis discussed in the previous subsection.
However, not all the mental model is so negative in this part of our corpus. Nonetheless, despite the veracity of their opinions and reflections, these are frequently mitigated by means of cognitive verbs as well as modal verbs and adverbs of probability acting as hedges e. This understatement is also conveyed through the high frequency of contrastive linking words e. When comparing the results drawn from The Guardian with the ones obtained in The Telegraph, a partially different picture seems to emerge.
The men- tal model attached to those words differs considerably between both samples: unlike the dark and discouraging attitude that their meaning connotes in The Guardian, in The Telegraph their semantic connota- tions evolve around someone closely associated to power centres both locally and globally , who has a more optimistic attitude towards the Brexit election and calms down the UK population by assuring them that the Brexit is not going to change the economic situation of the country in the future. By the same token, there are even terms in The Guardian which are completely absent in The Telegraph.
This can be demonstrated, on the one hand, by the lower frequencies obtained for terms such as Brexit, costs, crisis, decline, economy, hard, national, pressure, productivity, staff, uncertainty, vote, workers, etc. In addition, there are null frequencies for significant terms such as accused, benefits, court, earn, employee, face, false, hit, remuneration, roles, salaries, suffer, wage, workers, etc. Furthermore, no instances have been found for terms such as encour- age, forward, measure, reform, solve, tackle, trying, etc.
The data shown in this table corroborate the trends and contrasts already indicated in the previous findings. The Guardian The Telegraph after 81 , bank 51 , benefit 18 , big after 0 , bank 26 , benefit 0 , big 52 , Britain 80 , British 49 , chief 0 , Britain 37 , British 23 , chief , company , customer 0 , company 0 , customer 0 , cut 81 , cut 25 , could 89 , crisis 17 , 0 , could 0 , crisis 0 , deal 0 , deal 66 , employee 3 , executive employee 0 , executive 0 , find 0 , 4 , find 41 , he , high 41 , he , high 0 , insist 9 , London insist 0 , London 54 , more , 0 , more , most 73 , new 66 , most 58 , new 86 , not , over not 0 , over 44 , pay 0 , price 0 , 81 , pay , price 66 , receive receive 0 , rise 0 , say , staff 13 , rise 68 , say , staff 50 , 0 , tell 0 , than 0 , their 0 , them tell 30 , than , their , them 0 , they 0 , top 0 , UK , want 42 , they , top 55 , UK , 0 , warn 21 , we 0 , will , want 37 , warn 44 , we , will year , etc.
Table 3. Comparison of words from the collocation analysis of The Guardian with The Telegraph. Nonetheless, terms such as big, chief, company, employee, executive, high, pay, rise, than, their, them, they, top are not found in The Telegraph. This verb is frequently used in neutral or informal registers. This could mean that the register used in the The Guardian could fluctuate between neutral and informal and more formal in the case of The Telegraph.
The findings stemming from this analysis have also shown important differences concerning both data sets. Particularly, a boss is perceived as someone acting as an adviser and calming citizens down, that the UK has always been a rich and prosperous nation that cannot be affected, under any circumstances, by the Brexit vote e. Therefore, he or she can be the perfect guide to ensure workers that the UK is a rich country and nothing can alter that, even if the UK leaves the EU e.
In addition to all these insights, the corpus and the analysis could allow for many more findings and interpretations, which would extend further than the aim of the present research. This generic interpretative model is also reinforced by widely-accepted synomyms such as executive, director, head and leader. Notwithstanding this, our analysis also shows that today this con- cept entails another set of defining and interpretive parameters, of a more variable and subjective nature, which are highly dependent on the context and make it very vulnerable to the socio-political ideology or orientation of the speakers who use it and of the media through which it is transmitted.
The study implies that, depending on the socio-political and con- textual factors involving the expression of terms referring to usual professional roles, their definition and meaning differ remarkably, also affecting other associated concepts, such as authority, hierarchy, power, immunity to criticism, company organisation, etc. References Buchanan, Mark. Think your boss is incompetent? New Scientist : Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance. Journal of Business Research 67 1 : When the boss is away.
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Frames, Fields and Contrasts. New Essays in Semantic and Lexical Organization. New York: Routledge, Towards a theory of communicative competence. In- quiry 13 : Hess, James D. Why are there bosses? In Hess, James D. The Eco- nomics of Organization. Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, In nomine patris: discursive strategies and ideology in the Cosa Nostra family discourse. Kierkegaard, Sylvia. Privacy in electronic communication: watch your e-mail, your boss is snooping! Lakoff, George. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Frames, Fields and Con- trasts.
New York: Routledge. Lehrer, Adrienne. Semantic fields and lexical structure. New York: American Elsevier. Muller-Smith, Patricia. Being the boss is not what is used to be! Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing 13 5 : Nelson, Mike. Semantic associations in Business English: A corpus based analysis. English for Specific Purposes 25 2 : Newitz, Annalee. The boss is watching your every click… New Scientist : Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford living dictionaries. Oxford: Ox- ford University Press. In Gel- bukh, Alexander ed.
CICLing Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Sluss, David M. Relational identity and identifica- tion: defining ourselves through work relationships. Academy of Man- agement Review 32 1 : Being ethical when the boss is not. Organizational Dynamics 36 2 : Van Dijk, Teun A. Discourse, context and cognition. Discourse Studies 8 1 : Discourse and Context. A Sociocognitive Approach. This is mainly because the lexical and syntactic status of syntagmatic compounds still is controversial.
In other cases, such as Pt. The first part of this paper provides an overview of the current discussion on these two types of constructions. The second part addresses the alternation and variation of syn- tagmatic compounds and nominal syntagms by means of analysis of large-scale corpus data, the French, Spanish and Portuguese corpus of the TenTen family. Here, the focus lies on the variation of the prepositional internal element of these constructions as well as on a comparison of different word formation patterns.
Keywords: Compounds; quantitative corpus linguistics; lexicon-syntax interface; Ro- mance. En otros, como en Pt. A quantitative survey of N Prep N constructions in Romance languages State of the Art Terminological insecurity and inconsistent classifications dominate the scientific debate on syntagmatic compounds of the type N Prep N in Romance languages.
The heterogeneous terminology goes along with a diverse delimitation and integration of different types of lexical and syntagmatic units. In the same way, syntagmatic compounds of the type N Prep N may or may not — depending on the underlying terminol- ogy — be included in the group of compounds. Traditional grammars and dictionaries generally classify nominal syntagmatic compounds of the type Sp. According to de Bustos Gisbert, syntagmatic compounds consist of at least two etymological words and are formally not distinguishable from nominal phrases de Bustos Gisbert, N Prep N constructions in Romance languages therefore tend to be left-headed and inflectional processes are performed at the head constituent ibd.
Therefore, they can be interpreted as complex nominals and not as nominal phrases. Furthermore, syntagmatic compounds generally differ from nominal syntagms in that they form an accentual unit de Bustos Gisbert, Still, a main concern of past research on syntagmatic compounds was their delimitation, especially by introducing new delimitation tests e. These tests generally include criteria such as the modification of the constituents e. These studies generally follow Benveniste in his statement that syntagmatic compounds are the real word formation process in French.
In this per- spective, syntagmatic compounds are commonly perceived as lexical structures that may show signs of internal syntactic patterns Z. Other studies again do not focus on the delimitation of lexicon and syntax. From a construction grammar, respectively a construction morphology perspective, syntagmatic compounds and partially equiv- alent nominal syntagms are both considered as constructions, lying on a continuum between lexicon and morphosyntax e. Masini Still, these studies also target a description and classification of differ- ent constructions, such as syntagmatic compounds, phrases and other types of compounds Masini In the present account, we argue that there is no clear line between syntagmatic compounds and syntac- tic constructions, but that they lie on a continuum between a lexicalized and syntactic pole.
A second major concern in research on syntagmatic compounds is the question of whether these constructions are lexicalized syntactic constructions or whether they emerge by productive word formation patterns. Rainer clearly opts for the classification of syntagmatic compounds as productive lexical patterns: Formations of this kind [syntagmatic compounds] are not, as often stated erroneously, the result of the lexicalization of regular syntactic sequences, but constitute very productive lexical patterns … Rainer The most prominent problem in this debate is by far the question of whether syn- tagmatic compounds should be considered as a part of the lexicon or a part of syntax.
Furthermore, in most of the cases, the discussion comes down to the crucial question of whether syntagmatic compounding is a process of lexicalization or a process of productive word formation. In the present paper, we assume that syntagmatic compounding is a productive and rule-governed process of word formation in Romance languages. Furthermore, we assume that there is no clear boundary be- tween lexicalized and syntactic constructions of the type N Prep N. The aim of the present work is to have a closer look at syntagmatic compounding of the type N Prep N in corpora of written French, Span- ish, and Portuguese, focusing on the internal variation of N Prep N con- structions as well as on their frequency and productivity and potential differences across these three languages.
Internal alternation and variation in syntagmatic compounds The above review of the theoretical status of syntagmatic compounds in Romance languages does not present a unified perspective. Neverthe- less, syntagmatic compounds appear to be at least partially lexicalized constructions. Despite their more or less strong degree of lexicalization, syntag- matic compounds still appear to preserve at least some of their syntactic characteristics. The at least partially syntactic character of syntagmatic compounds is apparent from the internal lexical and inflectional var- iation of these constructions.
Rio-Torto and Ribeira consider the possibility of internal change in N Prep N — constructions as a test of compound status. From this perspective, examples of constructions in which the preposition can be replaced without changing meaning would imply the construction to be syntactic rather than lexical. Thus, the pair Pt. However, the phenomenon of in- ternal prepositional alternation appears to be more complex than this. Internal alternation of the preposition appears to be not uncommon in Romance languages.
The possibility of alternation depends to a large extent on factors such as the semantic function of the N2 as well as on the fixedness and idiomaticity of the whole construction. Consider the following examples: 1a. In 1a. Here, both variants have lexical status that does not trigger a change from lexical to syntactic status. The same applies to the ex- amples in 3, where we cannot identify a change in the lexical status, but clearly a certain discrepancy in the degree of lexicalization and the semantic relation between N1 and N2.
That is to say that the construc- tions as shown in example 1. The above examples suggest that the preposition is not semantically com- pletely inert, even though, as we shall see below, some noun pairs show considerable variation with respect to the choice of the internal preposi- tion. Furthermore, the possibility of internal variation in the above exam- ples indicates that these constructions may not be completely lexicalized.
They still allow internal modification that appears to be syntactically mo- tivated. The following quantitative corpus survey aims to give further evi- dence for the productivity and frequency of the internal prepositional variation in syntagmatic compounds in Romance languages. Corpus survey 3. Their type counts range from 4 to 10 billion and their token count ranges from 5 to 11 billion see General Corpus Information on sketchengine. We made use of normalized samples of million tokens each, provided to us by Sketchengine. Language Types Tokens French In Portuguese, the construction seems to appear on a particularly frequent basis when compared to French and Spanish, which show relatively similar frequencies.
In order to dispose of a syntactical- ly homogenous dataset, these constructions were not included for the present analysis. In what follows, we refer to the complete set of N Prep N sequences extracted from the corpora as dataset 1. Removal of these irrelevant cases from a list of more than 6 million examples was beyond the scope of the present study. Despite this noise, dataset 1 was included in the quantitative survey in order to obtain an overview of the occurrence and productivity of the construc- tion type N Prep N in the languages under investigation.
Furthermore, the results from the analysis of dataset 1 offer a first point of compari- son of the analysis of dataset 2. From dataset 1, a second dataset was derived from which word tri- plets that did not instantiate the N Prep N construction were manually removed. This second dataset, henceforth dataset 2, focused on the in- ternal preposition of the constructions. In a first step, all constructions overlapping in their N1 and N2 and diverging in their preposition were selected e.
Type and token counts for dataset 2, which includes all pairs of nouns that are attested with at least two different internal prepositions Table 3 lists type and token counts for dataset 2. As for dataset 1, the counts for Portuguese outnumber those for French and Spanish. S can be estimated given the numbers of word types Vk that occur once, twice, three times etc.
For further mathematical detail on these measures, see Baayen and for the estimation of S, Baayen , Thus, we have three estimates, each highlighting a different aspect of productivity: The number of types V for the extent to which a head or modifier position is used in the corpus, the probability P that when the corpus is increased, new types will be sampled, and the limiting number of types that one might sample if the corpus size were increased to infinity.
Analysis dataset 1 Table 4 summarizes the frequency and productivity statistics for dataset 1, focusing on the productivity of the nominal slots in the N Prep N construction. The upper subtable documents the counts when types are defined by the first noun of the construction. The lower subtable concerns the corresponding counts for the second noun. On the basis of the numbers of tokens N, types V, potential types S, and hapax legomena V1, the N Prep N construction appears least productive in French, of medium pro- ductivity in Spanish, and most productive in Portuguese.
This ordering holds for both the first and the second noun. The ranking of the three languages by P is different, with Portuguese having the lowest productivity measure. It should be kept in mind, how- ever, that P is itself a function of N, and that it decreases as N and V increase. As we read through a text, the rate at which new words are encountered decreases steadily.
Given that N is very much larger for Portuguese, the value of P is actually surprisingly large. Comparing Spanish and French, the similar values of P are surprising given that N is substantially larger for Spanish than for French. Therefore, the P val- ues provide further support for the ranking based on the other statistics. Frequency and productivity statistics for dataset 1. The upper part of the table defines types on the basis of the first noun, the lower part bases types on the second noun Table 4 also indicates that the second noun position of the construc- tion is used more productively than the first noun position: all measures assume larger values in the second part of the table.
The greater pro- ductivity of the modifier position makes sense from an onomasiological perspective, as the second noun slot is typically used to differentiate between subcategories of the head noun, which in Romance languages generally occupies the first noun slot. Analysis dataset 2 Table 5 summarizes the frequency and productivity measures for data set 2, which includes only those manually verified examples of N Prep N constructions in which the first and second noun co-occur with at least two different prepositions.
For this analysis, each combination of first and second noun and preposition counted as a separate type. French Spanish Portuguese P 0. Frequency and productivity statistics for dataset 2, which comprises all instances of noun pairs that occur with at least two different prepositions As in the analysis of dataset 1, Portuguese again shows the highest type V and token N frequencies, the largest number of hapax le- gomena V1 , the highest estimate of possible types S , and given the large numbers of tokens, a surprisingly large degree of productivity P. Spanish, by contrast, shows a very different pattern.
There are no hapax legomena in dataset 2 for Spanish, and hence P is zero, and S cannot even be estimated it is expected to be only slightly larger than V, if at all. In other words, internal variation of the preposition for fixed head and modifier nouns is not productive in Spanish, whereas it is productive in French and especially Portuguese.
In Portuguese, we find examples of noun pairs occurring with 5 different prepositions, in French, this reduces to 4, and in Spanish, the maximum is 3. Thus, when we consider the productivity of internal variation of the preposition, the ranking of the languages places French above Spanish. Inspection of the Spanish examples suggests a strong tendency to make use of the high frequent preposition de and to restrict variation in prep- ositions to a relatively small set of lexicalized compounds.
Discussion The present study sheds new light on the vexed question of the status of N Prep N construction in Romance languages. First, the survey of N Prep N sequences in the TenTen corpora of French, Spanish, and Por- tuguese clearly shows that this construction contributes substantially to the lexicon in the onomasiological sense of these languages. In all three languages, the construction is realized in tens of thousands of examples dataset 1. Admittedly, dataset 1 includes many instances that do not conform to the N Prep N construction.
Nevertheless, even if half of the tokens and types were to be discarded, the counts of legiti- mate constructions still would portray this construction as the most pro- ductive onomasiological process in Romance — mirroring the evidence from Germanic languages suggests that derivational word formation is less productive than compounding by several orders of magnitude. It is therefore unlikely that N Prep N constructions in Romance languag- es are merely lexicalized or fossilized syntactic constructions without support of a productive process of word formation pace Guevara and Villoing An analysis of a hand-curated subset of dataset 1, comprising all attestations of N1 Prep N2 constructions in which N1 and N2 co-occur with at least two different prepositions dataset 2 , brought to light an unexpected difference between Portuguese and French on one hand, and Spanish on the other hand.
Portuguese, and to a lesser extent French, exhibit productive internal variation of the preposition. Span- ish, by contrast, appears not to allow its speakers the same flexibility in the choice of preposition. In French, pour emerged as slightly more productive than de e. Conclusions The present quantitative survey of N Prep N constructions in Spanish, French and Portuguese offers new empirical evidence for the discussion on Romance word formation. The two main points addressed in this study concern the lexical or syntactic status of syntagmatic compounds as well as their productivity and degree of lexicalization or fossilization.
The analysis indicates that these constructions indeed are realized according to productive processes of Romance word formation. That is to say, syntagmatic compounds are naming units that form part of the lexicon. N Prep N constructions are not merely fossilized syntactic constructions, rather, the construction type N Prep N is an important and frequently used mechanism of word formation. Here, different criteria, such as the degree of fixedness, idiomaticity and compositionality play an important role. Furthermore, the present quantitative analysis points out that in- ternal prepositional variation is possible in N Prep N constructions in Romance languages, but that this variation displays different character- istics in the three Romance languages under investigation.
Portuguese shows the highest frequency and productivity of internal prepositional variation in a large number of different semantic contexts. In contrast, the Spanish data do not allow any productivity in the internal variation of N Prep N constructions. In the same line, Spanish has the strongest tendency of employing the preposition de as internal prepositions in N Prep N constructions.
In conclusion, it can be stated that syntagmatic compounds of the type N Prep N form a productive and frequent part of Romance word formation. Still, their frequency and productivity as a word formation type vary in the three Romance languages, as well as their disposition for internal prepositional variation. Further studies on this subject need to consider the qualitative characteristics of internal prepositional vari- ation, notably the semantic relation between the N1 and the N2.
Morphology in real time. In Geert, E. Yearbook of Morphology Dordre- cht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Aronoff, Mark. Word formation in generative grammar. Productivity and English deriva- tion: a corpus-based study. Linguistics 29 5 : Bauer, Laurie. Morphological productivity. Baayen, R. Corpus linguistics in morphology: morphological pro- ductivity. An International Handbook. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, Analyzing Linguistic Data. Cambridge University Press. Word Frequency Distributions.
Paris: Gallimard. In Mereu, Lunella ed. The classification of compounds. Lingue e Linguaggio 4 2 : Bouvier, Yves F. Definir les composes par opposition aux syntagmes. Generative Grammar in Geneva, Buenafuentes de la Malta, Cristina. On the definition of word Linguistic inquiry. Monographs Cambridge, MA. In Almeida, Maria L. Fradin, Bernhard. IE, Romance: French. The Oxford Handbook of compounding. Oxford University Press, Guevara, Emiliano R. Spanish compounds. International Jour- nal of Latin and Romance Linguistics 24 1 : Kampers-Manhe, Brigitte. Travaux de Linguistique 1 , Kornfeld, Laura M.
Barcelona: Universitat de Pompeu Fabra, IE, Romance: Spanish. The Oxford Handbook of Compounding. Oxford Uni- versity Press , Lieber, Rochelle. The lexical integrity hypothesis in a new theoretical universe. Phrasal lexemes, compounds and phrases: A constru- cionist perspective. Word Structure 2 2 : Italian compounds. Inter- national Journal of Latin and Romance Linguistics 24 1 : Italian VEV lexical constructions. Morphology and Dialectology 6: Pacagnini, Ana M. Moenia 9: Rainer, Franz.
Compounds in portuguese. Lingue e Linguaggio 8 2 : Portuguese compounds. In- ternational Journal of Latin and Romance Linguistics 24 1 : Compound versus phrase: Evi- dence from a learning study 10th Mediterranean Morphology Meet- ing. Fundamental principles of an onomasiological theory of English word-formation. Onomasiology Online 2: Villoing, Florence.
French compounds. International Journal of Latin and Romance Linguistics 24 1 : First, the article will present the objectives of the research project of which this study forms part. Then, I will address some applications of corpus linguistics in the field of phraseology. Finally, similarities and differences between the expressions investigated will be analysed based on the evidence obtained from the corpora.
Keywords: phraseology; corpus linguistics; common multi-word units; German; Spanish. Mansilla, Ana. Marco del Proyecto. Aber das Schicksal hat es anders gewollt. Tabla 2. En el caso del presente de indicativo en 3. Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag. Cabezas Holgado, Emilio. Phraseologie und Konstruktionsgrammatik. Konstruktionsgrammatik III.http://productadvisor.henkel.buildingonline.com/apocalypse-overture-by-oils-up-whats.php
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Fleischer, Wolfgang. Phraseologie der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Hauptprobleme der deutschen Phra- seologie auf der Basis sowjetischer Forschungsergebnisse. Deutsche Grammatik. Mellado Blanco, Carmen. Argumentstruktur — Valenz — Konstruktionen. A Mosaic of Corpus Linguistics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Seco, Manuel. Madrid: Alfaguara. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press. Steyer, Kathrin. Usuelle Wortverbindungen. Zentrale Muster des Spra- chgebrauchs aus korpusanalytischer Sicht. Wittgenstein, Ludwig.
Philosophische Untersuchungen. Oxford: Blac- kwell. Abstract: The features of specialised languages have been extensively described by scholars in the literature. This research aims to provide a bottom-up assessment of his description on a lexical level through the implementation of corpus-based tech- niques on two specialised corpora of legal and telecommunications English.
Introduction Specialised languages have been traditionally deemed functional vari- eties or registers Biber, ; Halliday, defined in terms of the variation of the recurrence of particular linguistic features in compari- son to general language or other registers.
Focusing on the definition of the language of science and technol- ogy, Sager et al. According to this author, the special features of their jargon undeniably reveal their membership of the same community. EPAP embraces many different branches or varieties associated with different professional or scientific fields such as medicine, law, engi- neering or business, amongst many others.
In principle, one would expect legal and tel- ecommunications English terminology to differ considerably owing to their very nature and origins, the former belonging to the field of humanities and social sciences and having Latin and French influence often being archaic and redundant Mellinkoff, ; Tiersma, ; Alcaraz, , , the latter coming from the realm of engineering and science and being highly specific and accurate. However, with re- gard to the statistical data associated with these lexical units, our main hypothesis was that both technical and subtechnical terms would be- have similarly in both EPAP varieties, confirming the general descrip- tions made by scholars.
Owing to the size of both corpora and, above all, to our wish to carry out a fully automatic analysis with the aim of processing as much data as possible, only some of the features described by Alcaraz in his work were considered in this appraisal, namely, the ratio and distribution of highly specialised terms in both corpora; the relevance of subtechnical vocabulary; the use of Latin words and phrases in the legal corpus and the presence and significance of abbreviations and acronyms in the tel- ecommunications corpus.
Literature review Following from the above, this research concentrates on four major lex- ical features of EPAP which have been assessed applying a bottom-up corpus-based methodology, that is, by observing the statistical behav- iour of the lexicon found in two specialised corpora, TC and UKSCC. The literature devoted to the study of such features highlights the usage of specialised terminology as one of the most noteworthy aspects of EPAP as regards both its frequency of use and its distribution across text collections.
Specialised terms could be defined as conceptual ve- hicles which are employed to transmit specialised knowledge amongst scientists, researchers, or professionals in all specialised areas, hence their relevance in EPAP. In other words, terms encapsulate specific concepts and must be understood and mastered by specialists, otherwise communication will fail. Still within the lexical level, Alcaraz underlines the signifi- cance of semitechnical or subtechnical vocabulary as another relevant feature of EPAP.
Subtechnical vocabulary is defined as those lexical units present in general language which acquire one or several specific meanings within a field of knowledge Alcaraz, In addition, subtechnical vocabulary is also understood as a collection of general words which are shared both by the general and the specialised fields without changing their meaning.
Another relevant feature of EPAP, specifically of legal English, is the strong influence of Latin on its terminology, something that does not happen in telecommunications English. Alcaraz 78 distinguishes between pure- ly Latin borrowings like obiter dictum or ratio decidendi, which were imported directly from Latin without being adapted into English, and cognates such as exonerate or presumption, which reflect the English orthography although their meaning and form remain closely linked to their etymological origin.
In the present research we will concentrate on the former and attempt to support these observations with evidence obtained from UKSCC, our legal corpus. Within EPAP, the area of science, technology and computing is also characterised by the constant creation of new lexical units by using the linguistic resources of the corresponding language Alcaraz, The creation of new words responds to the need for the unique naming of concepts. According to Sager et al. Nevertheless, there are also word formation processes that do not fol- low the principle of concatenation so new items are formed by deleting linguistic material instead of adding it.
Vermeulen eds. Losi, L. Passerini y S. Salvatici eds. Supporting Traumatized Communities throught Narration and Remembrance, vol. Caplan y J. Feffer eds. Duijzings, op. Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory, op. A veces incluso hay ecos del simbolismo de la mortalidad y la vanitas de la baja Edad Media y el Renacimiento —por ejemplo, cuando los cristales se presentan como productos. En la figura 2. El cristal de la figura 2. Desde mediados del siglo. Casi parece como si los objetos que hemos seleccionado fueran intercambiables.
Ha habido intentos de mezclar las ciencias. Es cierto que los libros de texto de historia del arte comercialmente viables a diferencia de los textos experimentales siguen promoviendo muchas de las mismas secuencias de obras de arte. Springer, ; reed. Blanchard,  ; John G. Lima-de-Faria, ed. Marx, ; reed. Sandig, : Cohen und Sohn, Brockhaus, , 3 vol. Springer, Noorduyn an Zoon, : , En este sentido, su propia obra muestra a la ciencia otra mina por explotar. Yo, como lectora, he perdido a mi interlocutora, a la autora. Pero debemos ser cautelosos en aquellas coyunturas en que podemos sentirnos tentados de etiquetar tajantemente a Wolf bien como deconstructivista, bien como socialista.
No quedan fotos. Pero, aunque un poco envarados, miran sonrientes hacia las cuatro esquinas del despacho. Vuelta a la derecha, a izquierda, retroceso Lo suyo era observar y envidiar un poco a una y calar al otro. El ojo de Nelly desata el lazo aparentemente inquebrantable entre el hipnotizador y su sujeto. En estas circunstancias, romper el silencio se convierte en un imperativo, a pesar de que hablar se presta a consecuencias desastrosas. La respuesta es, naturalmente, escribiendo Muestra de infancia.
Hablar de Stalin, al igual que hablar de Hitler, significa romper un silencio impuesto. El interrogatorio de las fotos autoritarias abre temas prohibidos. Si consideramos la postura aparente de Wolf no muy distinta de la de Theweleit y los Mitscherlich de que el fascismo empieza en casa, no es de sorprender que gran parte de los interrogantes que Nelly se plantea acerca de su cultura tengan que ver con las fotos familiares.
En el momento de escribir Muestra de infancia, la madre de la narradora ya ha fallecido, de modo que es la madre irrecuperable a quien tanto Nelly como la narradora ven en el retrato con el sombrero. Estas yuxtaposiciones destruyen la superficie lisa que Charlotte aspira a crear. La imagen de Leo Siegmann constituye un reflejo de la foto de Hitler que cuelga en la pared.
Nelly se sofoca. Este es su fallo. Pero el odio ciego resulta demasiado cuesta arriba p. He citado este pasaje completo porque pone de manifiesto las formas en que la perspectiva visual puede abrir una brecha en la existencia controlada de una dictadura autoritaria. Que la. Con esto quiero decir que para ver el yo, el primer paso puede ser mirar al yo como objeto.
A diferencia de Huck, tiene una madre y un padre que viven felizmente entre los muros de la cultura, y el amor de sus padres la mantiene en una pauta de comportamiento que la arranca de su ser y la divide en dos. Lo que quiere es reexa-. No dijo nada. Wolf crea las imbricadas perspectivas de la narradora y Nelly y la narradora y Lenka para imaginarse ese punto ciego.
Lenka quiso reflexionar sobre ello p. Tanto la madre como la hija se imaginan bajo el ojo de la vigilancia. En la sociedad en la que Nelly se hace mayor, el Dios omnisciente aparece ataviado con una trinchera. Este es. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, : ]. Fischer, eds.
Columbia, S. Frankfurt: Luchterhand, : Washington, D. Princeton: Princeton University Press, : Regarding memory and oblivion, art and its history Ever since I first became aware of the figure of Ferrant, I have long been fascinated by the persistence of the news, now forgotten, but ever present in the years subsequent to his death, of the wish to destroy his work post mortem, information that was conveyed largely by the spoken word. Over the years in which I have prepared my thesis, I have on several occasions been party to that same version of events.
I have also heard opinions that vehemently stated the opposite. The data are not conclusive in either sense. In spite of this circumstance, his widow adopted a reticent attitude towards any use of his work and did not further public knowledge of it, as shown by her letters of refusal regarding any attempts at dissemination on the part of historians, critics or young artists not linked to his inner circle of friends.
Let us return to the beginning and follow Ferrant through to the end of the destruction game. The conditions governing an approach to the understanding of his work ended up by being based on an apparent state of nothingness that had certain consequences. Amongst others, I believe that the widely accepted idea of destruction, arising from his self-dissatisfaction, played a dismissive role in the critical fortunes that emerged over these years regarding the artist, by back-projecting shadows of doubt onto his artistic merits.
The image of the failed artist still persists in the texts of the catalogue for the His photographic double, however, was destined to betray him. The existence of the archive enabled him to survive over time with greater success that the majority of his peers, who spent less time putting their affairs in order. This material became known once his widow had died, as the new heir favoured a more open approach. The overriding criteria for organising this archive was a chronological succession by series, whilst distinguishing between those works located and those missing or destroyed, which caused a discontinuity in a possible unitary understanding of the work.
Before addressing this discontinuity, it is worth attempting to discover the nature of the role played by the photographic archive in his mind, in his creative process, in the visual management of his work, and to establish the points of nexus and friction between his sculptural output and his photographic practice. Like other sculptors who preceded him, Ferrant exploited the advantages of photography to shed light on aspects of his work, borrowing from the different influences that had been criss-crossing between these media since the 19th century. His approach, however, distanced itself from more traditional uses of photography, such as the employment of light to point up the definition of shapes Brancusi or for non-frontal perspectives Rodin.
These accounting procedures are also applied to other materials in the archive, such as the lists in which he records the exhibitions he has been involved in, bibliographic references, countless clippings, often minute, of his appearances in the press, or notes in which he jots down all the data related to the publication of his texts. The documentary role of photography appears also in other activities of his. For example, he kept a photographic record of the works performed by his students, an archive of works between and , of which the students themselves did not have a copy.
Considering that these works, as mere exercises, are destined to disappear, it seems as if Ferrant wished to capture the learning process, imbuing it with a sense of identity. By mid, the archive already contained 2, photos, in spite of the shortage of photographic equipment and paper. The use Ferrant makes of photography is fully immersed in the debate that has underpinned the relationship between art, photography and the history of art since the 19th century. In the case of the history of art, which is precisely taking shape over these years photography constituted a graphic document of considerable use for the study of images and a tool for the visual classification and review of works of art, by providing a direct and visual dissection of the work, which allowed for contrast and comparison.
It became embodied as a fundamental support for comparative analysis, based on formalist categorisations that rendered it easier to further taxonomies: create schools and styles, distinguish one painter from another, identify feasible evolutions within the work of the same artists. In all, the use of photography was not received in the same manner amongst art historians. Whatever the case, photography would place the work of art in a new position where it was impossible to separate the work from its image.
Indeed, his art cannot be understood outside this dilemma, given that it is based on the exhaustive work revolving around the accumulation and study of the artistic forms that preceded him, as opposed to many of his peers, whose model was nature. It is no surprise that with this approach Ferrant tried to interpret his own forms and that he ended up propounding a discourse on his work, a guide on how to understand it.
It is worth noting two interesting facts. The first is the physical arrangement of the photographs. Others are grouped and arranged into albums clearly defining how they should be approached. This exercise in interpretation is undertaken, nonetheless, on a domestic scale, a private testing ground. The thread between both worlds may be traced through the second interesting fact, the position within the albums of the works destroyed, ghostly presences that help to understand the meaning of his artistic process, at least the one that Ferrant wanted to give to his work. Given the arrangement of the albums created before , in a classic notebook-style format, it is possible to build up a sequence; in other words, to visualise the process that leads from one work to the next.
The Objetos hallados is a series from whose pieces are formed by jetsam found on the beach, shells, roots, stones and wood. Each of these series functions as a partial response to a greater question that Ferrant has been posing himself on movement and balance. In this series, Ferrant strives to understand why the pieces do not.
Leading theologian: change canon law to correct papal errors
For Ferrant, research and experimentation into this link is one of the ways of answering the question, what is a sculpture? Although the work is somewhat later, it coincides in this sense with the concepts that underpin the series of Objetos hallados and thereby it was presented as another one of these in Given that it was probably rotten, the wood had left its inner structure open to view. What remains uncovered are the different interconnected layers, the structural fabric that enables it to hold itself up, the possibility of its statics.
This piece has a logical coherence with the other pieces that follow on from it in the album, Figura Figure and Hombre de palo Stick Man , the first of which has also disappeared. In both cases, instead of a found object, Ferrant himself tries to make a figure out of wood. From this perspective, the approach is evasive and somewhat misleading, because the notion of whether the pieces are good or bad works if the range of solutions that Ferrant proposes is taken as a reference, or otherwise if each one of them is compared and related to the responses that other contemporary artists are providing for similar questions.
Each series for Ferrant is an experiment, an experience, a trial run that, once its possible variations have been explored, leads on to another essay. Once a certainty has been attained, the destruction of a work is to a certain extent a natural fate, in the same way that each new draft a writer completes cancels out the prior one. It has a token value therein the need for the photo and involves a systematic approach.
It is not that the process is the aim , but rather that its status of possibility is the process which the photos render explicit. There is no way of separating this from the results — his works: either they are all taken into account, a possibility that is only forthcoming in the albums, or none of them is considered, which ties in with his idea of destruction. It is curious to see how the paucity of located works and the existence of the archive spoilt the purged version that Ferrant wanted to further about himself and this overexposure of his work ended up projecting the idea of an eclectic or inconsistent artist, always according to the prevailing canons on modern art.
There is a great difference between considering an artist to be coherent, irrespective of the quality of his work, or incoherent, despite successes. The full entirety of his work, its meaning, is not to be found in the accumulative succession of photos, no matter whether they are ordered chronologically or in series, but rather in the albums, that intermediate product, that go-between, which only exists in that guise so as to propound a discourse. The albums become an imaginary space upon which to shape his desires, in which to fantasise with both misconstrued works and daring pieces that stretch his modern sculpture to the limit, and in which to specify how he would like to be interpreted.
Ferrant stands midway between the artist and the historian of his own work, between creation and interpretation. By redirecting his creative model to understand his own process through a different medium, photography, he produces a contamination and embarks upon a path for removing the boundaries between the end medium and the instrumental medium for enabling the albums to be viewed also as a work of art. Under what conditions is this possible? To take this leap, to force an interpretation based on artistic practices linked, for example, to the management of documents that extend into the artistic sphere, may be revealing for granting Ferrant access to a new historiographical debate, for updating his proposal.
Following the changes in art in the s, post-modern historiography has been setting its sights on the contradictions in modern art and in specific artistic practices located within its cycle in order to propose credible genealogies for contemporary practices and generate a new discourse, which exposes a rift between different understandings of artistic reality. We should not forget, however, that the new discourse generates its own meaning with regard to the former one and, in order to surpass it, also needs to embrace it.
The albums, therefore, are simultaneously both document and work, because the updated interpretation does not cancel out their previous functions. Actually, as we suggested at the beginning, it adapts well to the notion of a double, a copy with respect to the original, whilst at the same time acting as a division. The albums fulfil their mission there where, for various reasons, true practice was shown to be limited.
Regarding movement The relationship Ferrant establishes between sculpture and photography is full of other examples that explain his artistic project. Ferrant understands movement in an abstract or conceptual way, and his concern is not to create sculptures whose movement stems from the action of a motor — he is not dealing with machines, he is not an engineer. What interests him is that sculpture entails the possibility of movement, containing the potential for movement.
His formal solutions will vary over the course of the years, which does not mean there is an evolution towards an inevitable end, but rather that they are varying answers that involve different consequences. In a wider sense, the work would consist of several items: the physical sculpture, its title, the series of photographs and the designs-drawings for each part of the same, with their exact measurements and angles, constituting the plans for building the figurine.
If we say that the title is significant, it is because each one of its words encloses a definition of what it aims to be. In some way, the mutability could only be completely fulfilled within the photographic sphere. The piece held the potential for movement and the photographs developed and captured his artistic project. The notion of supplement applies here in an exemplary manner.
If we consider the specificities of photography as a practice, we may also point out the contaminations that his idea of sculpture projects onto it. It is precisely that quality which Ferrant uses to render his project possible, the possibility of capturing the instant of something that will change a moment later or is capable of doing so and which only the photo is capable of showing. The sculpture alone cannot do it all, and Ferrant consciously exploits the possibilities of the new medium: a medium that, furthermore, has its own history and is imbued with the meanings attributed to its different uses, far removed from artistic activity.
The result of placing photographs one after another in a series in which movement is studied on the basis of successive. It is difficult to decide whether Ferrant, on the basis of this series, was interested in recomposing movement on the basis of the principle of retinal persistence.
Already making its mark within chronophotography in the 19th century is the analytical photography of movements for scientific purposes and animated photography, the reproduction of moving images with spectacular results. This brief story is normally based on a succession of facial expressions or minimal actions. Although the result may seem the same, the origin is quite the opposite.
Whereas chronophotography captured movement and broke it down into static images, passing from reality to photography, Ferrant takes static images that can be linked together to suggest movement. Ferrant creates a fiction. To a certain extent he is proceeding in the same way as the creators of plasticine animations.
Photography here plays a strange part. It distances itself from its supplementary role and gives rise to something different. Its documentary function gives way to its artistic purpose. There is nothing unusual in the fact that Ferrant, fascinated by movement, should understand and develop the possibilities of the photographic and cinematographic media.
Another interesting example is to be found in the albums dedicated to his last three series, jointly referred to as Escultura infinita , albums. No piece has a finished result: it is changeable, at the service of taste and the creative skills of the handler. At these times he has forgone the creation of a closed work and generates a type of work whose underlying concept is the possibility of change. It is not important to represent figures that can move, but rather works that have not been determined beforehand. Each new arrangement of the pieces means that the work both affirms and negates itself at the same time.
Each resulting piece is circumstantial. This dialectic between fleetingness and permanence is to be logically captured by Ferrant through photography, as he had already done on prior occasions. In this case, photography recovers its documentary use, but not to locate a work in a discourse. That would be impossible because there is no definitive work. The concertina effect allows for a simultaneous view, not only of one of the conjunctions, but also of all the conjunctions together.
The concept was in fact an invitation to combine the pieces of various works. The non-existence of these kinds of formats on the market meant that Ferrant had to make them himself and they acquired a highly distinct object status. This desire to push back the boundaries of the standard album format goes beyond what is merely a cataloguing process, to the benefit of an artistic practice and the discourse that upholds it.
In some cases all trace has been lost of the collector. A significant body of work, especially his last two series of Escultura infinita, was in travelling exhibitions at the time of his death and its subsequent fate is something of a mystery. Ante una escultura infinita, [dir. The biography of the Florentine-born mechanical engineer Antonio Meucci is so dramatic that it appears to uphold the fate of misappropriation as a self-fulfilling prophecy.
As a result of an official resolution passed by the US Congress on 5 June , the news confirmed what several generations of Italians already knew from their school textbooks as a historical travesty: namely, that the true inventor of the telephone was Antonio Meucci. When he delivered the documents on his invention to the Western Union Telegraph Company, he only held a provisional entry known as a caveat in the US patent office. This had to be renewed annually and completed with a definitive request for a patent, which cost dollars.
In a shameful manner, the company informed Meucci that his documents had been lost before the newspapers published details of the invention supposedly by Graham Bell. By this, the text refers to the experiment that Meucci staged in New York with the participation of a singer: her voice could be heard a considerable distance away over a cable and the event was reported in several local newspapers. As if involving some kind of divine punishment, Alexander Graham Bell was condemned to defend his illegitimate patent in the courts up to times, with a favourable ruling each time.
In different parts of the United States and the world, hitherto unknown inventors publicly claimed to have invented the telephone. The first of these was Elisha Gray, who failed by a matter of hours to register the patent before Bell. Meanwhile, the unfortunate Meucci played a recurring role in the story, one that makes certain creators become forever associated with bad luck.
This misfortune befalling genius, however, is not so much a series of mishaps that plague the life of revolutionary inventors, artists or scientists, but rather a failure in their attempts to inscribe their name in history; in other words, the ghost of oblivion. Years before the dispute arose between Meucci and Western Union Telegraph, his wife had pawned the first prototype of the telephone in order to pay for the treatment her husband required after he survived the explosion of a steam-ship in New York.
In all probability, Meucci would have sought a different financial solution to alleviate his physical suffering, but the pragmatic approach taken by Ester, his wife, gave priority to his health over the product of his inventiveness. He never managed to recover the prototype and so rebuilt it from scratch, to be faced once again with misfortune a short time later. There is no doubt that the true drama did not involve those difficulties, but rather the deception that Bell consummated by registering the invention in his name at the patent office.
It was at that moment when true infamy reared its ugly head under the guise of an ancient prophecy. The possession of ideas cannot be satisfied by the pride of their embodiment alone, but rather it demands recognition and registration; in other words, it requires a deed of ownership.
The author emerges as an individual who stands apart from the rest insofar as the sole instigator of the mental content we call an idea. The idea may refer to various spheres, but it retains an identical claim for protection and endorsement whether it be artistic, literary, scientific or technical. To a greater or lesser extent, the experience of having an idea does not conclude with its formulation and perfection, but rather it implicitly demands protection and recording as guarantees against the abstract threat of robbery.
This reaction is in reality constituent of the individual creator, insofar as author, that is, owner of ideas, and is fully removed from the degree of originality or the value that the idea finally attains once it has been objectified. It is a presupposition of authorship that renders authorship itself as a presupposition.
The author is the basic axiom of a series of consequences based on the dialectic between the subjective conception of ideas and their objectivation. The true scale of the matter is revealed when it becomes a financial issue. It is then that the request for the filing and registration of ideas rises to the degree of legal institution.
The institutions that protect authors refer to a statutory sphere that provides blanket coverage for whatever is endorsed by the principle of authorship, but thereby excludes the problem of the processes of creation in its appraisals of originality and purpose.
The author thus proceeds as an unquestionable premise of the creation itself and relays the problem of its value to the objectified space of economic exchange under universal laws referring to conflicts of interest. This affects sensitive spheres in which authorship cannot be disassociated from the idea of creation, as could be the case in art or literature, but it has its legal development in parallel with the concept of industrial property. Although it is clear that it will be the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed on 20 March , which definitively constitutes an agreement of an international nature with the ability to truly protect that right.
The rules laid down therein will undergo a difficult evolution throughout the various historical legislations in industrialised countries, and it is precisely with regard to the degrees of scientific and technical development that an interpretation is to be made of these laws that are subject to progressive amendments. The process for registering the intellectual ownership of inventions and creations that can be exploited highlights a conflict of interests in these means, insofar as symbolic or conceptual machines from which a productive possibility stems.
It is the industrialised societies that will try to establish a web of regulations that ensure their own enrichment through private initiative, and it is on that same field of play that the internationalisation of patents becomes a longsought-after project that interweaves those aspects structurally linked to economic interest, ownership and filing as endorsement and outlet of ideas. In fact, the Paris Convention, like the entire institutional framework deployed later through the evolution of international law, is based on the.
Precedence in the recording of a patent will determine original authorship and the allocation of exploitation rights. The patent office acts as a repository of ideas that is accurately classified and verified. In contrast to what it may seem, this world of ideas is not wholly Platonic, as the patents are to be put into action within a specific timeframe. In other words, their holders have to turn them into products. The phenomenon of the exponential and constant enrichment of the owners of patented ideas is to a certain extent a response to the capitalist myth of amassing a financial fortune with a minimum of effort and investment.
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This protection takes shape in an increasingly complex identity apparatus that constitutes part of the registration and reservation of an emblematic image. In this, the image of trademarks involves an incalculable symbolic value wherein economic success lies in their collective recognition. Nevertheless, in the massive production of resources, prototypes and industrial formulas, the act of patenting, insofar as a right, becomes one huge filing problem.
Each new draft patent has to be carefully compared to existing patents to safeguard the principles of uniqueness and precedence. Modern IT systems appear to have somewhat lessened some of the more pressing management problems, but the difficulty remains in interpreting the languages in which orders are registered in the proper manner.
Or to be more precise, the creation of a linguistic system for the virtually limitless number of patents. During the s, a crisis arose regarding the problem of the filing and management of patent applications that, on the one hand, led to the publicising of the actual application as a measure of protection and notification to competitors and, on the other, to the attempt to internationalise the procedures.
Over the course of those years, patent offices received applications in unmanageable proportions. The increase overextended the appraisal systems and the resulting delays for the applicants meant the loss of economic interest in the patent underway. Furthermore, potential competitors for those applications did not have access to the information, which made it possible for conflicting patents to be immersed in the processing system at the same time.
The Patent Coordination Treaty PCT arises from the need to establish systems for simplifying registration and appraisal procedures on an international basis without duplicating the proceedings in each one of the states in which a patent is to be recorded. The development of different international agreements upon which the concept of intellectual property is based is the result of a protracted diplomatic effort that has its own heroes. Following the recent passing of Arpad Bogsch,2 Director General of WIPO for 24 years, the current director, Kamil Idris, described him as one of the fathers of the modern intellectual property system.
This was undoubtedly true, and as Bogsch recounted, the interest of the United States, Europe, Japan and the Union Soviet played a decisive role in bringing this international agreement to fruition. Following the negotiations, a Diplomatic Conference was held to adopt the Cooperation Treaty in matters of Patents. The possibility of processing the information was largely based on a premise that the respective national patent offices were to have embraced beforehand and which constituted the beginning of the solution for addressing the exponential increase in applications and the problems of filing and appraisal.
This premise consisted in incorporating a preliminary report that included a consensus coding of the application. It was the origin of the current methods for examining applications. This method, provided that it was endorsed as per international regulations, meant not only the speeding-up of internal procedures and the immediate publication of the patent request prior to its resolution, but also its appraisal between similar patents that were similar or liable to cause conflict between countries adopting the same system.
The 23 preparatory meetings would culminate on 19 June in the Diplomatic Conference held in Washington, with a total of 78 governmental delegations, 55 of whom had the right to vote, and another 22 international or intergovernmental organisations. It would take another eight years until, on 1 June , the treaty came into force with the first application for an international patent. The presence of the Soviet Union in the initial agreements in matters of patents highlights the fact, regardless of terminological discrepancies, that the problem constituted an unavoidable question of State for the most important country outside the capitalist sphere.
These partial agreements reflect, in an embryonic manner, in both the texts and the diplomatic vicissitudes, the tension between the universal calling of the patent phenomenon and the problems associated with its administration in the international sphere. Ideally, all these movements were designed to create a single administration to appraise the applications, but the signing of the PCT has to accept the coexistence of as many administrations as there are states for comparing the available data on a patent.
The aim achieved, albeit seemingly modest, was essential for upholding a structure for endorsing ingenuity or invention; that partial aim is without doubt the creation of a system for rendering data commensurable. One of the more paradoxical aspects of the creation of these official bodies lies in the conflict between the universal nature of any patent attempt and the local scope of the procedure. Although international law has made considerable progress, the truth is that states retain sovereignty over the exploitation and approval of their own patents. At present, by virtue of the International Patent Cooperation Treaty PCT , instigated by the UN and seconded by 80 countries, it is possible to obtain patents with major guarantees of international consensus.
When multinationals aim to ensure their sole rights over the exploitation of a patent, they proceed by delegating the same registration process in each national administration endorsed by those countries in which implementation is intended. The systems of appraisal have currently been improved through the application of technology, even when the interpretation of the proposals continues to be an unavoidable task and which cannot be catered for by software.
The examiners are always highly skilled, with qualifications in chemical sciences or in electrical or mechanical engineering. The State-of-the-Art Reports are those drafted by these experts that are drawn up on the basis of codes according to categories of potential degrees of conflict with pre-existing patents. It is not a reasoned report, it is not a written text, but rather a series of prior citations rated in accordance with three categories that refer to previous possible cases of the whole or a part of the patent involved in the request.
The aim is to assess the novelty of the patent in terms of preceding cases. Many applications simply do not comply with the formal conditions of industrial applicability and novelty that are required in this strict process. The definition of the patent application is to comply with a form that is equally strict and is to be accompanied by whatever documentation is considered necessary for the correct understanding of the proposal. In the case of mechanical devices and apparatus, the presence is required of diagrams and drawings that depict their structure and operation.
Within this context, several schemes begin to emerge within at the heart of the European Union that seek to reap benefits from the huge wealth of information held by the institutions in order to make it available as an asset of public interest that could be to the advantage of private companies and civil society. One of the more ambitious projects in this sense is the e-content programme sponsored by the European Union, in which the Spanish Patents and Trademarks Office took part.